Table 1.

Risk factors for developing AKI

Demographic and ClinicalBiochemical Markers
Adults
    age >65 yearsElevated IL-6
    diabetesElevated soluble TNF-α receptor
    cirrhosis/hepatic failurePAI-1
    CHF
    CKD
    volume depletion
    sepsis
    cardiopulmonary bypass
    exposure to nephrotoxins
Children
    invasive mechanical ventilationIL-6 (10)
    vasoactive medicationsIL-8
    nephrotoxic medications
    sepsis
    multiorgan failure
    volume depletion
    thrombocytopenia
    hypoxemia
    neurologic dysfunction
    stem cell transplantation
  • CHF, congestive heart failure; CKD, chronic kidney disease; PAI-1, plasminogen activator 1.