Table 4.

The main maternal-fetal outcomes in the study groupa

OutcomesControls (n = 267)bCKD Stage 1: GFR > 90 ml/min (n = 61)CKD Stage 2: GFR 60 to 89 ml/min (n = 15)CKD Stage 3: GFR 30 to 59 ml/min (n = 11)CKD Stages 4 to 5: GFR < 30 ml/min (n = 4)CKD All Stages (n = 91)Statistical Significance (cases versus controls)Statistical Significance (stage 1 versus controls)Statistical Significance (stage 1 versus stages 2 to 5)
Cesarean section, %66 (24.7%)35 (57.4%)6 (40%)9 (81.8%)3 (75%)53 (58.2%)P < 0.0001P < 0.0001NS
Delivery <37 weeks, %13 (4.9%)20 (32.9%)6 (40%)10 (90.9%)4 (100%)40 (44%)P < 0.0001P < 0.0001P = 0.004
Delivery <34 weeks, %4 (1.5%)9 (14.8%)2 (13.3%)6 (54.5%)2 (50%)19 (20.9%)P < 0.0001P < 0.0001NS
Gestational age, weeks, mean ± SD39.2 ± 1.9136.9 ± 2.936.7 ± 2.933.6 ± 2.832 ± 3.236.2 ± 3.2P < 0.0001P < 0.0001P = 0.005
Fetal weight, g, mean ± SD3268.3 ± 500.42795.7 ± 7452761.3 ± 5182050.5 ± 6961246.3 ± 397.12631.7 ± 786.5P < 0.0001P < 0.0001P = 0.004
SGA, % (<10th centile)28 (10.5%)8 (13.1%)1 (6.7%)3 (27.3%)3 (75%)15 (16.5%)NSNSNS
Admission to NICU, %3 (1.1%)11 (18%)3 (20%)6 (54.5%)4 (100%)24 (26.7%)P < 0.0001P < 0.0001P = 0.02
  • a Limiting the analysis to stage 1, two cut points of proteinuria were tested: (≥ 0.3 g/24 h: 44 cases; >0.3 g/24 h: 17 cases; ≥ 1 g/24 h: 55 cases; >1 g/24 h: 6 cases). Statistical differences were found as for cesarean section gestational age with both cut points and with need for NICU, fetal weight, and delivery <34 weeks with the cut point at 1 g/d. Statistically significant differences between controls and stage 1 persist omitting the cases with proteinuria >1 g/d from stage 1 CKD.

  • b Incidence of PE in controls = 1.1%. Statistical tests included χ2 and t test.