Table 2.

Characteristics of adults with nondialysis-dependent CKD stages 3 to 5 from the general U.S. populationa

CharacteristiceGFR, ml/min/1.73 m2
45 to 59 (n = 1239)30 to 44 (n = 399)15 to 29 (n = 93)<15 (n = 23)
Race-ethnicity, % (95% CI)
    non-Hispanic white86 (83 to 88)86 (81 to 89)68 (54 to 79)72 (47 to 89)
    non-Hispanic black6 (5 to 7)8 (5 to 11)13 (7 to 21)18 (6 to 43)
    Hispanic5 (3 to 8)4 (2 to 9)5 (2 to 10)9 (3 to 23)
    other race-ethnicity3 (2 to 4)3 (1 to 5)15 (5 to 33)0 (NC)
Age, mean (95% CI), years67 (66 to 68)74 (73 to 76)72 (67 to 76)56 (46 to 66)
Age category, years, % (95% CI)
    <403 (2 to 5)0 (0 to 2)5 (1 to 20)24 (6 to 59)
    40 to 498 (6 to 11)3 (1 to 7)3 (1 to 8)8 (1 to 40)
    50 to 5917 (14 to 20)7 (4 to 11)3 (1 to 9)28 (9 to 59)
    60 to 6923 (21 to 26)15 (11 to 20)22 (14 to 34)23 (7 to 54)
    ≥7049 (45 to 53)75 (68 to 81)67 (51 to 80)19 (6 to 44)
Female, % (95% CI)61 (59 to 64)66 (61 to 71)54 (43 to 64)68 (40 to 88)
Unemployed, % (95% CI)NANANANA
Homeless, % (95% CI)NANANANA
Annual income ≤$15,000, % (95% CI)27 (23 to 30)41 (34 to 48)28 (19 to 39)39 (16 to 68)
Primary health coverage, % (95% CI)b
    uninsured5 (3 to 7)2 (1 to 6)5 (1 to 20)17 (4 to 49)
    Medicaid6 (4 to 7)6 (4 to 9)9 (4 to 18)12 (3 to 38)
    Medicare58 (53 to 62)76 (70 to 81)76 (63 to 86)33 (12 to 63)
    commercial or other64 (60 to 68)57 (51 to 63)59 (50 to 67)56 (28 to 81)
English spoken at home, % (95% CI)93 (90 to 95)92 (87 to 96)96 (92 to 98)91 (77 to 97)
Comorbid conditions, % (95% CI)c
    diabetes18 (15 to 23)27 (22 to 34)43 (31 to 57)29 (10 to 60)
    hypertension68 (64 to 71)80 (76 to 83)86 (74 to 93)85 (52 to 97)
    cardiovascular disease19 (16 to 22)33 (28 to 39)41 (30 to 53)22 (6 to 53)
    congestive heart failure6 (5 to 7)13 (10 to 17)20 (13 to 29)29 (9 to 61)
    chronic obstructive lung disease11 (9 to 13)9 (7 to 13)14 (6 to 28)5 (1 to 23)
    AIDS/HIV0 (NC)0 (NC)0 (NC)0 (NC)
    HBV infection0 (0 to 1)1 (0 to 3)0 (NC)0 (NC)
    HCV infection1 (0 to 2)1 (0 to 2)1 (0 to 3)0 (NC)
    alcoholism10 (8 to 13)8 (5 to 12)13 (7 to 23)14 (3 to 48)
    depressionNANANANA
    drug abuse5 (3 to 7)1 (0 to 5)2 (0 to 7)11 (2 to 50)
    tobacco smoking12 (10 to 15)7 (4 to 13)13 (6 to 25)41 (16 to 71)
Laboratory measurements
    albuminuria, % (95% CI)
    <30 mg/dl96 (95 to 97)87 (83 to 90)69 (53 to 81)59 (31 to 83)
    30 to 99 mg/dl2 (1 to 3)6 (4 to 9)8 (4 to 17)4 (1 to 13)
    100 to 299 mg/dl1 (0 to 2)5 (3 to 8)12 (5 to 24)7 (2 to 23)
    ≥300 mg/dl0 (0 to 1)2 (1 to 3)11 (5 to 22)30 (10 to 61)
    hemoglobin, mean (SEM), g/dl14.2 (0.07)13.4 (0.11)12.4 (0.19)12.6 (0.64)
    serum albumin, mean (SEM), g/dl4.2 (0.01)4.1 (0.03)4.0 (0.04)4.1 (0.16)
    serum calcium, mean (SEM) mg/dl9.5 (0.02)9.5 (0.04)9.4 (0.10)9.2 (0.29)
  • NC, not calculable because of fewer than five observations (point estimates may also be unstable); NA, not available.

  • a Data estimated from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999 to 2006).

  • b Percentages may not total 100 due to multiple sources of health coverage.

  • c Participants were considered to have diabetes if a physician had informed them that they had “sugar diabetes,” if they were receiving insulin or an oral hypoglycemic agent, or if they recorded a fasting plasma glucose concentration ≥126 mg/dl or a nonfasting plasma glucose concentration ≥200 mg/dl (2); hypertension if they reported taking a prescribed antihypertensive agent or if their systolic blood pressure was ≥140 mmHg or if their diastolic blood pressure was ≥90 mmHg at the time of the examination (3,4); cardiovascular disease if they reported a history of angina, coronary artery disease, stroke, or lower extremity amputation; congestive heart failure if they reported a history of “heart failure”; chronic obstructive lung disease if they reported a history of emphysema or chronic bronchitis; HBV, HCV, and HIV on the basis of the presence of a positive antibody test for HBV surface antigen, HCV, and HIV, respectively; and alcoholism if they reported drinking five or more drinks of any alcoholic beverage almost every day. We considered participants to suffer from drug abuse if they reported use of cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, or other street drug, and we considered participants as tobacco smoking if they reported current cigarette use “every day” or “some days.”