Table 4.

Unadjusted population prevalence of reduced kidney function and albuminuria by diabetes status, NHANES 1999 through 2006

CharacteristicPrevalence (95% CI) by Diabetes Status
Diagnosed DiabetesUndiagnosed DiabetesPrediabetesNo Diabetes
Reduced kidney function (15 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m2) only
    CKD-EPI estimation of GFR14.0 (10.5 to 18.4)13.8 (10.1 to 18.6)8.5 (7.3 to 10.0)3.4 (2.9 to 4.0)
    MDRD estimation of GFR15.7 (11.6 to 21.0)16.3 (12.3 to 21.4)9.7 (8.2 to 11.4)4.9 (4.1 to 5.8)
Albuminuria only
    microalbuminuria: ACR ≥3029.2 (25.0 to 33.8)29.2 (23.1 to 37.6)9.7 (8.4 to 11.2)5.8 (5.0 to 6.7)
    macroalbuminuria: ACR ≥3007.7 (4.7 to 10.6)3.3 (1.4 to 7.7)1.1 (0.8 to 1.6)0.6 (0.4 to 0.9)
    microalbuminuria: gender-specific ACRa35.2 (30.4 to 40.4)39.8 (31.8 to 48.4)14.2 (12.6 to 15.9)8.7 (7.8 to 9.6)
    macroalbuminuria: gender-specific ACRa7.0 (4.8 to 9.9)4.8 (1.8 to 12.1)1.2 (0.9 to 1.7)0.6 (0.4 to 0.9)
  • P < 0.001 across diabetes categories for all definitions listed. ACR, albumin-creatinine ratio; CI, confidence interval.

  • a Gender-specific cutoffs (11) were as follows: Microalbuminuria, ACR ≥17 mg/g and ≥25 mg/g, and macroalbuminuria, ACR ≥250 and ≥355 mg/g, for men and women, respectively.