Table 3.

Unadjusted population CKD prevalence by diabetes status and CKD definition, with estimation of GFR by the CKD-EPI equation, NHANES 1999 through 2006

CharacteristicPrevalence (95% CI) by Diabetes Status
Diagnosed DiabetesUndiagnosed DiabetesPrediabetesNo Diabetes
CKD defined by reduced kidney function (15 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m2) or microalbuminuria
    ACR ≥3038.5 (34.1 to 43.0)40.0 (32.5 to 48.1)16.6 (14.7 to 18.8)9.2 (8.2 to 10.3)
        % with stage 114.3 (11.3 to 17.9)19.3 (14.0 to 26.1)3.5 (2.7 to 4.6)2.6 (2.0 to 3.4)
        % with stage 29.7 (7.7 to 12.1)6.5 (3.9 to 10.4)3.9 (3.0 to 5.2)2.1 (1.6 to 2.7)
        % with stage 3A9.0 (6.3 to 12.7)8.8 (5.7 to 13.2)6.3 (5.2 to 7.6)2.5 (2.0 to 3.1)
        % with stage 3B3.6 (2.2 to 5.8)3.9 (2.0 to 7.1)1.9 (1.4 to 2.6)0.8 (0.5 to 1.1)
        % with stage 41.2 (0.6 to 2.4)1.6 (0.6 to 3.6)0.3 (0.2 to 0.6)0.2 (0.0 to 0.3)
    estimated persistence of ACR ≥30a30.3 (25.0 to 35.7)33.9 (26.2 to 42.2)14.3 (10.5 to 20.0)6.4 (2.5 to 10.4)
    gender-specific ACRb42.7 (37.9 to 47.6)47.2 (38.0 to 56.6)20.4 (18.4 to 22.4)11.5 (10.5 to 12.7)
CKD defined by reduced kidney function (15 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria alone
    ACR ≥30,or ACR >30010.9 (8.2 to 14.4)6.6 (3.8 to 11.3)3.7 (3.1 to 4.5)2.3 (1.8 to 2.9)
    gender-specific ACRb12.5 (9.8 to 15.9)8.4 (4.6 to 14.9)4.4 (3.6 to 5.3)2.5 (2.1 to 3.1)
  • P < 0.001 across diabetes categories for all definitions listed. ACR, albumin-creatinine ratio; CI, confidence interval.

  • a Estimated persistence of albuminuria based on previous study (10) from repeat sampling in a subset of NHANES III.

  • b Gender-specific cutoffs (11) were as follows: Microalbuminuria, ACR ≥17 mg/g and ≥25 mg/g, and macroalbuminuria, ACR ≥250 and ≥355 mg/g, for men and women, respectively.