Table 2.

Unadjusted population CKD prevalence by diabetes status and CKD definition, with estimation of GFR by the MDRD Study equation, NHANES 1999 through 2006

CharacteristicPrevalence (95% CI) by Diabetes Status
Diagnosed DiabetesUndiagnosed DiabetesPrediabetesNo Diabetes
CKD defined by reduced kidney function (15 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m2) or microalbuminuria
    ACR ≥3039.6 (35.1 to 44.3)41.7 (34.5 to 49.2)17.7 (15.6 to 20.1)10.6 (9.4 to 11.9)
        % with stage 110.4 (7.9 to 13.5)14.1 (8.8 to 22.0)2.7 (2.0 to 3.6)2.0 (1.5 to 2.6)
        % with stage 213.4 (10.4 to 17.0)10.7 (7.4 to 15.0)4.7 (3.8 to 6.0)2.6 (2.2 to 3.2)
        % with stage 3A10.0 (6.9 to 14.1)11.9 (8.3 to 16.8)7.4 (6.1 to 8.9)4.1 (3.4 to 5.0)
        % with stage 3B4.1 (2.7 to 6.4)3.7 (1.9 to 6.9)1.9 (1.4 to 2.6)0.7 (0.5 to 1.0)
        % with stage 41.1 (0.5 to 2.3)1.3 (0.5 to 3.7)0.8 (0.1 to 0.5)0.2 (0.0 to 0.3)
    estimated persistence of ACR ≥30a32.5 (26.5 to 38.8)32.3 (25.5 to 39.2)14.8 (12.9 to 16.8)8.0 (6.9 to 9.0)
    gender-specific ACRb44.3 (39.3 to 49.4)48.7 (39.8 to 57.7)21.5 (19.9 to 23.7)12.9 (11.7 to 14.2)
CKD defined by reduced kidney function (15 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria alone
    ACR ≥30,or ACR >30011.1 (8.4 to 14.6)6.6 (3.8 to 11.3)3.7 (3.1 to 4.5)2.4 (1.9 to 3.0)
    gender-specific ACRb13.0 (10.3 to 16.4)8.4 (4.6 to 14.9)4.4 (3.7 to 5.4)2.6 (2.1 to 3.2)
  • P < 0.001 across diabetes categories for all definitions listed. ACR, albumin-creatinine ratio; CI, confidence interval.

  • a Estimated persistence of albuminuria based on previous study (10) from repeat sampling in a subset of NHANES III.

  • b Gender-specific cutoffs (11) were as follows: Microalbuminuria, ACR ≥17 mg/g and ≥25 mg/g, and macroalbuminuria, ACR ≥250 and ≥355 mg/g, for men and women, respectively.