Table 1.

Demographic and clinical features of study population

Variablesn (%)Mean ± SDRange
Clinical characteristics (n = 172)
    age, yrs61 ± 1422 to 85
    gender (male)106 (60.9)
    eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m226 ± 125.3 to 58
    CKD stage 352 (29.9)
    CKD stage 489 (51.1)
    CKD stage 533 (19.0)
    etiology of CKD
    diabetes mellitus78 (44.8)
    renovascular disease35 (20.1)
    glomerular disease20 (11.5)
    other41 (23.6)
    cardiovascular disease32 (18.4)
    peripheral vascular disease21 (12.1)
    smoking28 (16.1)
Nutritional parameters (n = 172)
    BMI, kg/m231.4 ± 7.615.0 to 64.9
    SGA, score/76.2 ± 0.93.0 to 7.0
    well nourished138 (79.3)
    moderately malnourished36 (20.7)
    total energy, kcal/d1839 ± 633548 to 3779
Vitamin K status
    dietary vitamin K intake, μg/d (n = 168)130 ± 10317.3 to 740
    phylloquinone concentration, nmol/L (n = 162)2.1 ± 2.40 to 19.3
    %ucOC (n = 163)26.8 ± 22.30 to 89.0
    PIVKA-II (n = 108)3.62 ± 1.41.7 to 9.0
    VKOR polymorphism (n = 161)
    G/G18 (10.3)
    G/C82 (47.1)
    C/C63 (36.2)
    apolipoprotein E genotype (n = 161)
    E455 (34.2)
    no E4106 (65.8)
Vitamin D status (n = 163)
    vitamin D intake (diet + supplements), IU473 ± 37928.1 to 2091
    25(OH)D, nmol/L67.2 ± 26.024 to 151
Laboratory measures (n = 172)
    phosphate, mmol/L1.3 ± 0.30.5 to 2.4
    alkaline phosphatase, mmol/L85.2 ± 30.828.0 to 217
    parathyroid hormone, pmol/L13.8 ± 13.30.8 to 86.7
    albumin, g/L40.6 ± 4.722.2 to 51.8
    total cholesterol, mmol/L4.7 ± 1.40.7 to 12.8
    LDL cholesterol, mmol/L2.3 ± 1.00.4 to 5.7
    HDL cholesterol, mmol/L1.3 ± 0.40.5 to 3.5
    triglycerides, mmol/L2.5 ± 2.30.6 to 25.6
    CRP, mg/L6.3 ± 7.30.5 to 38.8
    urinary ACR103 ± 1470.3 to 724
  • ACR, albumin to creatinine ratio.