Table 1.

Baseline characteristics in patients grouped by quartiles of their baseline albumin-corrected serum calcium levels

Serum calcium, mg/dlP for Trend
<9.1 (n = 285)9.1 to 9.4 (n = 287)9.41 to 9.7 (n = 330)>9.7 (n = 341)
Age, yr69.8 ± 10.368.5 ± 10.967.9 ± 10.367.4 ± 11.60.005
Race (black), n (%)55 (19)66 (23)81 (25)98 (29)0.006
DM, n (%)145 (51)156 (54)186 (56)195 (57)0.1
ASCVD, n (%)169 (59)161 (56)179 (54)198 (58)0.7
Smoking, n (%)59 (22)66 (24)92 (29)86 (27)0.1
CCI2.6 ± 1.82.4 ± 1.82.5 ± 1.62.4 ± 1.70.4
Future Ca-based binder use, n (%)103 (36)74 (26)92 (28)67 (26)0.01
Future sevelamer HCl use, n (%)37 (13)25 (9)35 (11)37 (11)0.6
Future calcitriol use, n (%)101 (35)96 (33)97 (29)95 (28)0.023
Future aspirin use, n (%)167 (59)176 (61)202 (61)192 (56)0.5
Future ACEI/ARB use, n (%)210 (74)219 (76)260 (79)254 (74)0.7
Future statin use, n (%)161 (56)205 (71)217 (66)228 (67)0.045
BMI, kg/m228.5 ± 5.329.6 ± 6.029.9 ± 6.329.2 ± 5.90.19
SBP, mmHg153 ± 26149 ± 24152 ± 28146 ± 290.01
DBP, mmHg75 ± 1674 ± 1576 ± 1573 ± 160.4
Estimated GFR, ml/min per 1.73 m233.1 ± 15.936.8 ± 15.739.4 ± 15.739.8 ± 17.9<0.001
Serum albumin, g/dl3.8 ± 0.43.7 ± 0.43.6 ± 0.53.5 ± 0.6<0.001
Serum ALP, U/L98 ± 4385 ± 3495 ± 5189 ± 410.24
Total cholesterol, mg/dl190 ± 59189 ± 57188 ± 49192 ± 590.7
Serum phosphorus, mg/dl3.9 ± 0.93.8 ± 0.83.8 ± 0.73.8 ± 0.80.8
Serum bicarbonate, mEq/L24.9 ± 3.725.5 ± 3.426.0 ± 3.126.1 ± 3.4<0.001
Blood hemoglobin, g/dl12.4 ± 2.012.6 ± 1.912.7 ± 1.712.9 ± 2.00.001
Blood WBC count, 1000/mm37.2 ± 2.17.4 ± 2.37.7 ± 2.18.0 ± 2.5<0.001
Blood lymphocytes, % WBC22.6 ± 8.323.0 ± 9.323.7 ± 8.023.6 ± 8.50.12
Proteinuria, mg/24 h, geometric mean (95% CI)871 (729 to 1041)615 (518 to 730)782 (657 to 931)721 (612 to 849)0.4
  • Data without parentheses are presented as mean ± SD. Comparisons were made by χ2 test for linear trend. DM, diabetes mellitus; ASCVD, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; ACEI/ARB, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; GFR, glomerular filtration rate; ALP, alkaline phosphatase.