Table 2.

Common phosphate additives used by food industry

Phosphate SaltPurposeFound in
Dicalcium phosphateCalcium and phosphorus supplementation, dough conditionerBakery mixes, yeast-raised bakery products, cereals, dry powder beverages, flour, food bars, infant food, milk-based beverages, multivitamin tablets, yogurt
Disodium phosphateSequestrant, emulsifier, buffering agent, absorbent, pH control agent, protein modifier, source of alkalinity, stabilizerBreakfast cereal, cheese, condensed milk, cream, evaporated milk, flavored milk powders, gelatin, half and half, ice cream, imitation cheese, infant food, instant cheesecake, instant pudding, isotonic drinks, nonfat dry milk, pasta, pet food, processed cheese, starch, vitamin capsules, whipped topping
Monosodium phosphateAcidulant, buffering agent, emulsifier, leavening agent, protein modifier and sequestrant, gelling aidCola beverages, dry powder beverages, egg yolks, gelatin, instant cheesecake, instant pudding, isotonic beverages, and process cheese custard pudding and no-bake cheesecake mixes
Phosphoric acidAcidulant, pH control agent, buffering agent, flavor enhancer, flavoring agent, sequestrant, stabilizer, thickener, synergistCola beverages, carbonated and noncarbonated beverages
Sodium hexameta-phosphateSequestrant, curing agent, dough strengthener, emulsifier, firming agent, flavor enhancer, flavoring agent, humectant, nutrient supplement, processing aid, stabilizer, thickener, surface-active agent, synergist, texturizer, buffering agent.Meat, seafood, poultry, vegetables, cream, half and half, ice cream, whey, processed cheese, eggs, table syrup, toppings
Sodium tripolyphosphateSequestrant, pH control agent, emulsifier, providing alkalinity, buffering agent, coagulant, dispersing agent, protein modifier, antioxidant, curing agent, flavor enhancer, humectant, thickener, stabilizer, texturizerMeat products, seafood, poultry, vegetable proteins, processed cheese, sour cream, dips, yogurt, eggs, table syrups, whipped toppings, pet food, vegetables, whey
Tetrasodium pyrophosphateBuffering agent, pH control agent, alkalinity source, dispersing agent, protein modifier, coagulant, sequestrant, emulsification, color stabilizerProcessed meat, poultry, seafood, processed cheese, potato products, ice cream, frozen desserts
Trisodium phosphateBuffer, emulsifying agent, stabilizer, protein modifier, pH control, color stabilizerProcessed cheese, cheese products, imitation cheese, isotonic beverages, cooked breakfast cereals