Table 1.

Demographic, hemodynamic, and biochemical data in diabetic patients as categorized according to the hemoglobin tertiles and the correlations between the FMD and the other parameters

All subjects (n = 89)HbT1 (11.50 to 13.80 g/dl) (n = 34)HbT2 (13.90 to 14.60 g/dl) (n = 28)HbT3 (14.70 to 16.90 g/dl) (n = 27)PaCorrelations Pearson's r; Spearman's r(rS)
Age (years)50 ± 550 ± 551 ± 649 ± 50.52r = −0.02, P = 0.85; rS = −0.01, P = 0.98
Male gender, n (%)52 (58%)18 (53%)17 (61%)17 (63%)0.71r = −0.01, P = 0.94; rS = −0.02, P = 0.94
BMI (kg/m2)26.9 ± 2.127.3 ± 2.226.6 ± 2.326.8 ± 1.80.41r = 0.05, P = 0.67; rS = 0.11, P = 0.31
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)131 ± 13130 ± 8130 ± 7129 ± 80.78r = −0.18, P = 0.08; rS = −0.08, P = 0.45
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)84 ± 484 ± 485 ± 383 ± 30.14r = 0.07, P = 0.50; rS = 0.01, P = 0.92
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)173 ± 17172 ± 18175 ± 17172 ± 160.76r = 0.14, P = 0.18; rS = 0.08, P = 0.46
Glucose (mg/dl)137 ± 24138 ± 24140 ± 27134 ± 230.71r = 0.05, P = 0.64; rS = 0.02, P = 0.88
Insulin (UI/L)11.6 ± 4.912.4 ± 5.110.6 ± 3.911.8 ± 5.60.34r = −0.02, P = 0.89; rS = 0.02, P = 0.85
HOMA index3.9 ± 1.64.2 ± 1.73.6 ± 1.33.8 ± 1.70.35r = 0.01, P = 0.92; rS = 0.05, P = 0.63
HbA1c (%)8.5 ± 1.68.6 ± 1.98.4 ± 1.58.6 ± 1.40.93r = −0.04, P = 0.74; rS = −0.04, P = 0.75
Uric acid (g/dl)4.8 ± 0.84.7 ± 0.94.8 ± 0.84.9 ± 0.90.77r = −0.16, P = 0.15; rS = −0.23, P = 0.03
Duration of diabetes (months)52 ± 1153 ± 1151 ± 1052 ± 100.86r = −0.13, P = 0.23; rS = −0.16, P = 0.13
hsCRP (mg/L)9 (3 to 24)8 (4 to 20)8.5 (3 to 21)11 (4 to 24)0.04r = −0.48, P <0.001; rS = −0.53, P <0.001
GFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)107 ± 9105 ± 11110 ± 7105 ± 110.07r = 0.23, P = 0.03; rS = 0.18, P = 0.09
24 h proteinuria (mg/d)590 (10 to 2500)380 (10 to 1960)378 (30 to 1900)1000 (40 to 2500)0.60r = −0.47, P <0.001; rS = −0.52, P <0.001
FMD (%)7.4 ± 0.97.7 ± 1.07.5 ± 0.76.8 ± 0.9<0.001
  • a The comparison between the groups is performed by ANOVA. The data are presented as mean ± SD or percentage, where appropriate.

  • To convert total cholesterol in mg/dl to mmol/L, multiply by 0.02586; plasma glucose in mg/dl into mmol/L, multiply by 0.05551; eGFR in ml/min to ml/s, multiply by 0.01667; Hb and uric acid in g/dl into mmol/L, multiply by 10. HOMA, homeostasis model assessment; Hb, hemoglobin; FMD, flow-mediated dilation; BMI, body mass index; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.