Table 3.

Multivariate Cox regression analysis of factors associated with CKD progression

Demographic CharacteristicsHazard Ratio95% Confidence Interval
Age (years)
    2 to 50.720.61 to 0.84a
    6 to 120.970.85 to 1.10
CKD stage
    stage II1.00
    stage III2.001.64 to 2.42a
    stage IV6.685.46 to 8.18a
Primary diagnosis
    dysplasia1.150.96 to 1.37
    reflux nephropathy0.850.68 to 1.06
    focal segmental glomerulosclerosis1.771.48 to 2.12a
    other1.130.98 to 1.30
    obstructive uropathy1.00
Cohort year
    1994 to 19990.780.69 to 0.88a
    2000 to 20081.00
    yes1.261.14 to 1.40a
Laboratory data at registration
        hematocrit <33%1.521.36 to 1.69a
        hematocrit >33%1.00
        <8.5 mg/dl1.291.06 to 1.58b
        ≥8.5 mg/dl1.00
    phosphorus (high)
        high1.411.25 to 1.59a
        ≤4.0 g/dl1.671.49 to 1.86a
        >4.0 g/dl1.00
Medication use at registration
    erythropoietin use
        yes1.301.14 to 1.49c
    growth hormone use
        yes1.241.04 to 1.48b
  • Factors in the multivariate analysis include age, gender, race, hematocrit, albumin, CKD stage, primary diagnosis, cohort year, calcium, phosphorus, anemia, hypertension, iron supplementation, growth hormone use, and erythropoietin use.

  • a P < 0.0001.

  • b P < 0.05.

  • c P < 0.005.