Table 3.

Multivariate Cox regression analysis of factors associated with CKD progression

Demographic CharacteristicsHazard Ratio95% Confidence Interval
Age (years)
    2 to 50.720.61 to 0.84a
    6 to 120.970.85 to 1.10
    >121.00
CKD stage
    stage II1.00
    stage III2.001.64 to 2.42a
    stage IV6.685.46 to 8.18a
Primary diagnosis
    dysplasia1.150.96 to 1.37
    reflux nephropathy0.850.68 to 1.06
    focal segmental glomerulosclerosis1.771.48 to 2.12a
    other1.130.98 to 1.30
    obstructive uropathy1.00
Cohort year
    1994 to 19990.780.69 to 0.88a
    2000 to 20081.00
Hypertension
    yes1.261.14 to 1.40a
    no1.00
Laboratory data at registration
    anemia
        hematocrit <33%1.521.36 to 1.69a
        hematocrit >33%1.00
    calcium
        <8.5 mg/dl1.291.06 to 1.58b
        ≥8.5 mg/dl1.00
    phosphorus (high)
        high1.411.25 to 1.59a
        normal1.00
    albumin
        ≤4.0 g/dl1.671.49 to 1.86a
        >4.0 g/dl1.00
Medication use at registration
    erythropoietin use
        yes1.301.14 to 1.49c
        no1.00
    growth hormone use
        yes1.241.04 to 1.48b
        no1.00
  • Factors in the multivariate analysis include age, gender, race, hematocrit, albumin, CKD stage, primary diagnosis, cohort year, calcium, phosphorus, anemia, hypertension, iron supplementation, growth hormone use, and erythropoietin use.

  • a P < 0.0001.

  • b P < 0.05.

  • c P < 0.005.