Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of 172 study participants, categorized by the absence or presence of significant RAC

CharacteristicEntire CohortRACP
Not Significant (≤10)Significant (>10)
Sample size (n)17211854
RAC score (median [range])0 (0 to 1541)0 (0 to 10)91 (11 to 1541)
Demographics
    age (years; mean ± SD)57 ± 756 ± 760 ± 7<0.001
    male gender (%)5661460.07
    race/ethnicity (%)a0.12
        non-Latino white131119
        non-Latino black17209
        Latino666569
        other434
Clinical characteristics
    diabetes duration (years; mean ± SD)15 ± 615 ± 616 ± 70.35
    history of cardiovascular disease (%)423165<0.001
    current smoker (%)1718150.61
    BMI (kg/m2; median [IQR])30 (9)30 (9)31 (9)0.81
    SBP (mmHg; mean ± SD)154 ± 26156 ± 27151 ± 250.30
    DBP (mmHg; mean ± SD)77 ± 1377 ± 1375 ± 120.26
    ankle brachial index (%)0.16
        <0.9222221
        0.9 to 1.3576049
        >1.3211730
Laboratory data
    serum creatinine (mg/dl; median [IQR])1.4 (0.8)1.5 (0.8)1.3 (1.0)0.68
    eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2; mean ± SD)56 ± 2558 ± 2651 ± 220.11
    HbA1c (%; median [IQR])7.8 (2.7)7.8 (3.1)7.8 (2.0)0.99
    total cholesterol (mg/dl; median [IQR])190 (63)182 (68)190 (53)0.57
    LDL cholesterol (mg/dl; median [IQR])107 (45)105 (57)112 (52)0.58
    corrected serum calcium (mg/dl; mean ± SD)9.8 ± 0.49.8 ± 0.49.8 ± 0.40.33
    serum phosphorus (mg/dl; mean ± SD)4.3 ± 0.74.2 ± 0.84.3 ± 0.60.53
    serum PTH (pg/ml; median [IQR]49 (52)47 (52)55 (55)0.32
    serum 25(OH)D (ng/ml; median [IQR])22 (15)20 (14)24 (16)0.09
    C-reactive protein (mg/L: median [IQR])0.4 (1)0.4 (0.7)0.4 (0.7)0.57
    serum albumin (g/dl; mean ± SD)3.2 ± 0.53.2 ± 0.53.3 ± 0.50.12
    urine protein-creatinine ratio (mg/mg; median [IQR])2.2 (4.2)2.5 (4.3)1.8 (3.2)0.22
Baseline medical therapyb
    ACEIs or ARBs (%)7272720.68
    β blocker (%)5046590.11
    no. of antihypertensive agents (median [IQR])3 (1)3 (1)2 (2)0.14
    aspirin (%)4542520.27
    lipid-lowering agents (%)6359740.03
    phosphate binders (%)326
    active vitamin D (%)104
CAC score
    median (IQR)158 (469)85 (275)497 (974)<0.001
    range (%)<0.001
        0 to 1026349
        11 to 9916207
        100 to 400313130
        >400271554
  • ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic BP; IQR, interquartile range; PTH, parathyroid hormone.

  • a Other not included in χ2 test.

  • b Data for medications at baseline was missing for 15 patients.