Table 3.

Biopsy rates, disease activity rates upon study entry, and definitions used in the studies included for analysis

No.AuthorPercent Biopsy Proven on Study EntryDiagnostic CriteriaDisease ActivityFlareHypertension Definition
1Daskalakis et al. (6)100% (11/11)11n/aBP >140/90 mmHg
2Mintz et al. (13)73% (55/75)1, 211n/a
3Sittiwangkul et al. (14)n/a121, 2SBP >140 mmHg and/or DBP >90 mmHg
4Oviasu et al. (15)100% (25/25)3n/an/an/a
5Le Houng et al. (16)29% (11/38)1n/a1DBP >90 mmHg
6Rahman et al. (9)n/a131SBP >140 mmHg and/or DBP >90 mmHg
7Georgiou et al. (17)n/a111n/a
8Imbasciati et al. (11)100% (19/19)3n/an/an/a
9Le Thi Houng et al. (3)n/a11n/aDBP ≥90 mmHg
10Packham et al. (18)100% (41/41)3n/an/aDBP ≥95 mmHg or drug therapy
11Wong et al. (19)77% (17/22)141SBP ≥130 mmHg and/or DBP ≥90 mmHg
12Ruiz-Irastorza et al. (41)n/a153n/a
13Julkunen et al. (20)12% (13/112)1n/an/an/a
14Nossent and Swaak (21)13% (95/37)11, 6n/a>140/85 mmHg
15Houng et al. (7)100% (22/22)4n/an/aDBP >90 mmHg
16Wagner et al. (22)33% (19/58)411BP >140/90 mmHg
17Tandon et al. (23)36% (19/5311, 7, 81n/a
18Wong et al. (4)n/a111n/a
19Whitelaw et al. (24)29% (9/31)431BP >140/90
20Soubassi et al. (25)100% (22/22)51n/an/a
21Surita et al. (26)n/a131n/a
22Molad et al. (27)n/a131BP 140/90 mmHg
23Phadungkiatwattana et al. (28)n/a1n/a1SBP >140 mmHg and/or DBP >90 mmHg
24Imbasciati et al. (29)100% (81/81)411SBP >140 mmHg and/or DBP >90 mmHg or drug therapy
25Clowse et al. (30)n/a191n/a
26Cortes-Hernandez et al. (31)20% (12/60)131SBP >140 mmHg and/or DBP >90 mmHg
27Cavallasca et al. (32)n/a111BP ≥140/90 mmHg
28Chandran et al. (33)29% (9/31)11, 31, 4SBP >140 mmHg and/or DBP >90 mmHg
29Clark et al. (34)n/a13n/an/a
30Moroni et al. (35)94% (45/48)411SBP >140 mmHg and/or DBP >90 mmHg
31Carmona et al. (36)100% (35/35)161BP >140/90 mmHg
32Wang et al. (37)n/a43, 7n/an/a
33Zhang et al. (38)46% (12/26)13n/an/a
34Julkunen et al. (40)100% (16/16)311n/a
35Lima et al. (42)n/a111n/a
36Derksen et al. (5)40% (14/25)131BP >140/90 mmHg
37Carmona et al. (39)n/a16n/an/a
  • Diagnostic criteria: 1, American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1982 criteria (50); 2, paper-specific criteria (51); 3, clinical, laboratory, and histologic criteria; 4, updated ACR criteria (52); 5, paper-specific criteria (53). n/a, not available.

  • Activity: 1, organ involvement and laboratory abnormalities; 2, Mexican systemic lupus erythematosus activity index (54); 3, systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index-SLEDAI (55); 4, paper-specific scoring system (56); 5, lupus activity index (57); 6, lupus activity criteria count (58); 7, systemic lupus erythematosus activity index 2000 (59); 8, adjusted mean systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (60); 9, physician's estimate of lupus activity (61).

  • Flare: 1, new signs of active disease by clinical and laboratory variables or change in therapy; 2, Change in Mexican systemic lupus erythematosus activity index (54) score (>1); 3, change in lupus activity index (57) score (≥0.26); 4, change in systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (60) score (>5).