Table 3.

Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of participantsa

VariableCohort(n = 3612)Subcohort with iGFR (n = 1288)Diabetes(n = 1683)No Diabetes(n = 1929)P for Diabetes versus No Diabetes
Age (yr; mean ± SD)58.2 ± 11.056.1 ± 12.559.5 ± 9.857.1 ± 11.80.0001
Gender (n [%])0.2516
    male1959 (54)713 (55)931 (55)1028 (53)
    female1653 (46)575 (45)754 (45)899 (47)
Racial/ethnic group (n [%])0.0001
    non-Hispanic white1638 (45)713 (46)931 (39)1028 (51)0.2516
    non-Hispanic black/African American1651 (46)532 (41)849 (50)802 (42)
    Hispanic169 (5)69 (5)111 (7)58 (3)
    otherb154 (4)99 (8)76 (5)78 (4)0.0001
Annual household income (n [%])0.0001
    ≤$20,0001009 (28)297 (23)565 (34)444 (23)
    $20,001 to $50,000906 (25)338 (26)432 (26)474 (24)
    $50,001 to $100,000725 (20)306 (24)281 (17)444 (23)
    >$100,000389 (11)153 (12)134 (8)255 (13)
    no response583 (16)193 (15)271 (16)312 (16)
Educational attainment (n [%])0.0001
    <7th grade60 (2)16 (1)41 (2)19 (1)
    7th to 12th grade545 (15)153 (12)319 (19)226 (12)
    high school diploma695 (19)239 (19)339 (20)356 (18)
    vocational degree184 (5)64 (5)98 (6)86 (4)
    some college921 (26)319 (25)440 (26)481 (25)
    college graduate696 (19)298 (23)281 (17)415 (22)
    graduate degree510 (14)198 (15)167 (10)343 (18)
Tobacco use (n [%])
    current smoker494 (14)151 (12)212 (13)282 (15)0.0733
    >100 cigarettes during lifetime2019 (56)667 (52)983 (58)1036 (54)0.0057
Medical history (n [%])
    hypertension3094 (86)1091 (85)1552 (92)1542 (80)0.0001
    MI or coronary revascularization810 (22)225 (17)493 (29)317 (17)0.0001
    chronic heart failure357 (10)86 (7)245 (15)112 (6)0.0001
    PAD250 (7)80 (6)181 (11)69 (4)0.0001
BP variables
    SBP (mmHg; mean ± SD)127.7 ± 21.9127.8 ± 21.3132.4 ± 22.5123.6 ± 20.50.0001
    DBP (mmHg; mean ± SD)71.4 ± 12.872.4 ± 12.769.4 ± 12.973.1 ± 12.80.0001
    MAP (mmHg; mean ± SD)90.2 ± 13.890.9 ±13.290.4 ± 13.989.9 ± 13.60.3113
    BP >130/80 mmHg (n [%])1686 (47)626 (49)882 (53)804 (42)0.0001
Weight (kg; mean ± SD)92.0 ± 23.789.9 ± 21.297.7 ± 24.287.1 ± 22.10.0001
BMI (kg/m2; mean ± SD)32.1 ± 7.931.3 ± 7.034.1 ± 8.230.3 ± 7.20.0001
BMI (kg/m2; n [%])0.0001
    <25.0607 (17)234 (18)179 (11)428 (22)
    25.0 to 29.91017 (28)380 (30)388 (23)629 (33)0.0001
    >30.01987 (55)673 (52)1118 (67)869 (45)
ABI<0.9 (n [%])526 (15)173 (14)335 (20)191 (10)0.0001
Kidney function measures
    adjusted serum creatinine(mg/dl; mean ± SD)1.73 ± 0.571.68 ± 0.561.80 ± 0.561.66 ± 0.560.0001
    eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2; mean ± SD)43.4 ± 13.545.2 ± 14.141.4 ± 12.945.1 ± 13.80.0001
    eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2; n [%])
        <153 (0)2 (0)1 (0)2 (0)0.0001
        15 to 29664 (18)206 (16)351 (21)313 (16)
        30 to 592532 (70)887 (69)1197 (71)1335 (70)
        60 to 89389 (11)187 (15)126 (8)263 (14)
        >908 (0)4 (0)4 (0)4 (0)
    urine protein/24 h (g; median (IQR)0.17 (0.07 to 0.81)0.18 (0.07 to 0.90)0.32 (0.09 to 1.49)0.11 (0.06 to 0.43)0.0001
    ACEI or ARB therapy (n [%])2462 (68)880 (68)1336 (79)1126 (58)0.0001
Lipoproteins (mg/dl; mean ± SD)
    total cholesterol183.0 ± 44.5183.8 ± 47.1177.0 ± 47.2188.2 ± 41.30.0001
    LDL cholesterol102.5 ± 35.0103.4 ± 36.696.4 ± 36.4107.8 ± 33.70.0001
    HDL cholesterol48.1 ± 15.647.5 ± 15.745.7 ± 13.950.2 ± 16.80.0001
    triglycerides154.2 ± 115.6152.2 ± 112.5166.2 ± 130.3143.6 ± 99.80.0001
Hemoglobin (g/dl; mean ± SD)12.7 ± 1.812.6 ± 1.712.1 ± 1.713.2 ± 1.70.0001
Serum calcium (mg/dl; mean ± SD)9.2 ± 0.59.2 ± 0.59.1 ± 0.59.2 ± 0.50.0001
Serum phosphorus (mg/dl; mean ± SD)3.7 ± 0.73.7 ± 0.73.9 ± 0.73.6 ± 0.60.0001
Total PTH (pg/ml; median [IQR])53.0 (34.0 to 88.0)52.9 (34.0 to 85.0)60.0 (37.1 to 102.4)48.5 (32.5 to 78.0)0.0001
Blood glucose (mg/dl; median [IQR])97.0 (86.0 to 124.0)97.0 (86.0 to 121.0)127.0 (100.0 to 163.0)90.0 (84.0 to 98.0)0.0001
Glycosylated hemoglobin (%; mean ± SD6.6 ± 1.66.6 ± 1.67.7 ± 1.75.7 ± 0.50.0001
  • a ABI, ankle-brachial index; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic BP; eGFR, estimated GFR; iPTH, intact parathyroid hormone; IQR, interquartile range; MAP, mean arterial pressure; MI, myocardial infarction; PAD, peripheral arterial disease; SB{, systolic BP.

  • b Includes Asian/Pacific Islander and Native American individuals.