Table 1.

Commonly encountered nephrotoxic agents and exposuresa

Therapeutic AgentsAlternative ProductsDiagnostic AgentsEnvironmental Exposures
AntimicrobialHerbal remediesRadiocontrastHeavy metals
AminoglycosidesAristolochic acidHigh osmolarLead
Antiviral agentsEphedrasp.Low osmolarMercury
Amphotericin BGlycyrrhizasp.Iso-osmolarCadmium
ColistinDatura sp.Uranium
SulfadiazineTaxus celebicaOther agentsCopper
CiprofloxacinUno degattaGadolinium (in high dose)Bismuth
Cape aloesOral NaP solution
Chemotherapy    (colonoscopy prep)Solvents
PlatinsAdulterantsHydrocarbons
IfosfamideMefenamic acid
MitomycinDichromateOther toxins
GemcitabineCadmiumSilicon
MethotrexatePhenylbutazoneGermanium
PentostatinMelamine
Interleukin-2
Anti-angiogenesis agents
Analgesics
NSAIDs
Selective COX-2 inhibitors
Phenacetin
Analgesic combinations
Immunosuppressives
Sirolimus
Calcineurin inhibitors
Other
ACE inhibitors/ARBs
Methoxyflurane
Sucrose, Hydroxyethyl starch, Mannitol
Pamidronate, Zolendronate
Topiramate, Zonisamide
Orlistat
Statins
Mesalamine
  • a NaP, sodium phosphate; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; ARBs, angiotensin-receptor blockers; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme.