Table 2.

Classification of primary acid-base disturbancesa

ParameterAcidosisAlkalosis
Respiratory↑Pco2↓Pco2
Nonrespiratory (metabolic)
    abnormal SID
        water excess/deficit↓SID, ↓[Na]↑SID, ↑[Na]
        imbalance of strong anions
            chloride excess/ deficit↓SID, ↑[Cl]↑SID, ↓[Cl]
            unidentified anion excess↓SID, ↑[XA]
    nonvolatile weak acids
        serum albumin↑[Alb]↓[Alb]
        inorganic phosphate↑[Pi]↓[Pi]
  • a For further discussion, refer to text and to reference (29). [Alb], albumin concentration; [Pi], inorganic phosphate concentration; XA, concentration of unidentified strong anion.