Table 3.

Patient's characteristic and clinical outcomea

CharacteristicAKI (n = 36)Early AKIb (n = 16)Late AKI (n = 20)Non-AKI (n = 54)
Age (yr)68.31 ± 2.3065.41 ± 4.1670.64 ± 2.4560.39 ± 1.98
Gender (male/female)23/139/714/638/16
Scr (mg/dl)
    baseline (pre-OP)1.06 ± 0.061.10 ± 0.111.02 ± 0.051.02 ± 0.04
    post-OP (immediately)0.99 ± 0.05d1.09 ± 0.10d0.93 ± 0.050.84 ± 0.04
    post-OP day 11.28 ± 0.08c1.59 ± 0.13ce1.04 ± 0.050.91 ± 0.04
    post-OP day 21.51 ± 0.10c1.66 ± 0.19c1.40 ± 0.08c0.92 ± 0.04
    post-OP day 31.52 ± 0.11c1.55 ± 0.21c1.50 ± 0.10c0.91 ± 0.05
    post-OP day 41.54 ± 0.14c1.50 ± 0.21c1.57 ± 0.21c0.93 ± 0.05
    post-OP day 51.57 ± 0.19c1.39 ± 0.21d1.76 ± 0.32c0.92 ± 0.06
Delta Scr change (%)
    post-OP (immediately)−7.94 ± 2.60d−5.71 ± 4.41d−9.50 ± 3.20d−17.41 ± 2.07
    post-OP day 122.78 ± 4.95c49.38 ± 4.70ce1.50 ± 3.72d−10.37 ± 2.27
    post-OP day 245.83 ± 5.54c56.25 ± 10.04c37.50 ± 5.47c−11.30 ± 2.48
    post-OP day 344.24 ± 6.51c44.67 ± 10.59c43.89 ± 8.33c−11.60 ± 3.11
    post-OP day 446.56 ± 11.06c40.00 ± 10.69c52.35 ± 18.80c−15.20 ± 4.09
    post-OP day 548.89 ± 15.69c31.43 ± 10.73c67.69 ± 30.28c−14.58 ± 4.26
Mean duration of AKI (days)3.31 ± 0.404.13 ± 0.642.65 ± 0.46NA
Type of heart operation
    CABG-CPB63311
    OPCABG4317
    single valve104618
    multiple valve1011
    CABG + valve11384
    aneurysm (or aneurysm + valve)1107
    other3216
Intraoperative
    number of patients with CPB31 (86%)12 (75%)19 (95%)47 (87%)
    CPB (min)147.1 ± 11.6d151.7 ± 21.1d144.3 ± 13.9d113.9 ± 6.7
    aortic cross clamp time (min)92.2 ± 6.3100.4 ± 12.686.8 ± 6.479.6 ± 5.0
Postoperative
    ICU-free days within 30 d23.7 ± 1.4c21.3 ± 2.7c25.6 ± 1.2d27.8 ± 0.3
    hospital-free days within 30 d15.5 ± 1.6c14.2 ± 2.5c16.6 ± 2.0d21.5 ± 0.9
    renal replacement therapy1100
    mortality5320
  • a Values are means (±SEM).

  • b Early AKI, development of AKI within first 24 h after operation; Late AKI, development of AKI between 24 and 72 h after operation; CPB, cardiopulmonary bypass; CABG-CPB, coronary artery bypass grafting with CPG; OPCABG, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting; ICU, intensive care unit; Scr, serum creatinine concentration; Delta Scr change, % change in Scr from baseline.

  • c P < 0.005 versus non-AKI.

  • d P < 0.05 versus non-AKI.

  • e P < 0.005 versus late AKI.