Table 1.

Clinical characteristics of the study population by level of SBP controla

Clinical CharacteristicOverallSBP Category (mmHg)P
Controlled (<130)Moderate Control (130 to 149)Poor Control (≥150)
n2183863117
SBP (mean [SD])152.1 (23.4)118 (9.7)140.8 (5.7)169.3 (15.1)<0.001
DBP (mean [SD])81.9 (13.4)69.6 (9.8)77.7 (11.1)88.1 (12.0)<0.001
Pulse pressure (mean [SD])70.2 (19.7)48.3 (9.9)63.0 (11.2)81.2 (18.0)<0.001
Mean arterial pressure (mean [SD])105.3 (14.7)85.8 (8.6)98.8 (8.1)115.1 (10.0)<0.001
Age (yr; mean [SD])68.4 (11.0)65.7 (12.0)67.9 (10.4)69.5 (10.9)0.170
Men (n [%])209 (96)34 (89)60 (95)115 (98)0.060
Race (n [%])0.140
    white169 (78)35 (92)44 (70)90 (77)
    black47 (22)3 (8)18 (29)26 (22)
    other2 (1)0 (0)1 (2)1 (1)
Weight (kg)93.1 (21.3)94.4 (27.2)97.1 (22.5)90.5 (18.0)0.120
Body mass index (kg/m2; mean [SD])30.4 (6.2)30.2 (7.1)31.1 (6.7)30.1 (5.6)>0.200
Smoking (n [%])>0.200
    current43 (20)8 (22)22 (59)7 (19)
    former137 (63)22 (59)43 (68)72 (62)
    never37 (17)7 (19)11 (17)19 (16)
Diabetes (n [%])105 (48)13 (34)25 (40)67 (57)0.010
Coronary artery disease (n [%])93 (43)17 (45)27 (43)49 (42)>0.200
Cerebrovascular disease (n [%])35 (16)4 (11)7 (11)24 (21)0.160
Peripheral vascular disease (n [%])49 (22)13 (34)11 (17)25 (21)0.140
Cause of CKD (n [%])<0.010
    diabetes69 (32)6 (16)16 (25)47 (40)
    hypertension75 (34)13 (34)22 (35)40 (34)
    glomerulonephritis16 (7)6 (16)4 (6)6 (5)
    obstruction12 (5)3 (8)7 (11)2 (2)
    other36 (17)6 (16)10 (16)20 (17)
    unknown10 (5)4 (11)4 (6)2 (2)
Not receiving medications (n [%])10 (5)5 (13)1 (2)4 (3)
Average no. of antihypertensive drugs2.9 (1.4)2.4 (1.4)3.0 (1.4)3.1 (1.4)0.020
ACEI (n [%])116 (53)21 (55)36 (57)59 (50)>0.200
ARB (n [%])42 (19)4 (11)8 (13)30 (26)0.040
ACEI or ARB (n [%])148 (68)24 (63)40 (63)84 (72)>0.200
Serum albumin (g/dl; mean [SD])3.8 (0.4)3.7 (0.3)3.8 (0.4)3.7 (0.4)>0.200
Hemoglobin (g/dl; mean [SD])12.9 (1.9)13.5 (1.8)12.9 (1.8)12.7 (1.9)0.080
Urine protein/creatinine (g/g; median [IQR])0.32 (0.09 to 1.63)0.12 (0.08 to 0.35)0.11 (0.07 to 0.56)0.77 (0.20 to 2.37)<0.001
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2; mean [SD])38.0 (18.4)40.7 (21.0)40.4 (18.0)35.9 (17.6)0.180
  • a ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB, angiotensin receptor blockers; CKD, chronic kidney disease; DBP, diastolic BP; eGFR, estimated GFR; IQR, interquartile range; SBP, systolic BP.