Table 3.

Risk for CKD among Olmsted County, MN, stone formers compared with control subjects with adjustment for baseline comorbiditiesa

Adjusting FactorsEvent Type (HR [95% CI])
Clinical CKD by Any Diagnostic CodeESRD or Death with CKDSustained Elevated SCr
All patients with censoring by last clinic visit in Olmsted County (4066 stone formers and 10,150 control subjects)
    age, gender1.68 (1.49 to 1.89)1.31 (0.79 to 2.18)1.44 (1.21 to 1.72)
    age, gender, hypertension1.66 (1.47 to 1.87)1.29 (0.78 to 2.15)1.41 (1.18 to 1.69)
    age, gender, diabetes1.59 (1.41 to 1.80)1.26 (0.76 to 2.10)1.41 (1.18 to 1.69)
    age, gender, obesity1.63 (1.45 to 1.84)1.29 (0.78 to 2.14)1.40 (1.17 to 1.68)
    age, gender, all comorbidities (Table 1)1.56 (1.39 to 1.77)NAb1.36 (1.13 to 1.62)
Patients with follow-up SCr levels at the Mayo Clinic with censoring by last SCr test (2969 stone formers and 6171 control subjects)
    age, gender1.59 (1.40 to 1.80)1.30 (0.78 to 2.17)1.31 (1.10 to 1.57)
    age, gender, hypertension1.58 (1.39 to 1.79)1.29 (0.77 to 2.16)1.29 (1.08 to 1.55)
    age, gender, diabetes1.52 (1.34 to 1.73)1.27 (0.76 to 2.12)1.29 (1.07 to 1.54)
    age, gender, obesity1.57 (1.38 to 1.78)1.30 (0.78 to 2.17)1.29 (1.07 to 1.54)
    age, gender, all comorbidities (Table 1)1.51 (1.33 to 1.71)NAb1.25 (1.04 to 1.49)
  • a Results similar with adjustment for comorbidities (i.e., risk factors) as time-dependent covariates. NA, not applicable; SCr, serum creatinine.

  • b Too few events (66 or 63) in a model with 13 covariates.