Table 3.

Multivariate analysis of changes in quality of life: Baseline associations

Change from BaselineP1
Week 24Week 36Week 48Week 60Week 72Week 84Week 96
Burden of kidney disease
    female sex1.4 (2.0)1.4 (2.1)-0.4 (2.1)5.2* (2.1)-2.2 (2.2)0.7 (2.3)-0.6 (2.3)0.02
    body mass index > 25.5 kg/m2-1.0 (2.0)-0.8 (2.0)1.1 (2.0)0.9 (2.1)3.7 (2.1)4.6* (2.2)4.3 (2.2)0.02
    diabetic renal disease1.1 (2.7)7.5† (2.7)7.8† (2.7)6.7* (2.8)8.4† (2.9)5.7* (2.9)6.6* (2.9)0.01
    Europe-2.4 (2.1)-1.0 (2.1)3.1 (2.1)1.8 (2.2)1.8 (2.3)3.6 (2.3)3.8 (2.3)0.03
Symptoms/problems
    epoetin dose > 6000 IU per week-1.0 (1.3)1.6 (1.3)1.6 (1.3)-1.3 (1.3)-2.9* (1.4)-0.4 (1.4)-3.0* (1.4)0.0004
    body mass index >25.5 kg/m2-0.1 (1.2)-1.2 (1.3)0.7 (1.3)0.5 (1.3)2.3 (1.3)2.6 (1.4)2.8* (1.4)0.01
Sexual function
    diabetic renal disease-2.0 (4.0)-2.1 (4.0)-8.3* (4.1)-9.4* (4.2)-6.9 (4.3)-14.6§ (4.3)-10.0* (4.4)0.008
Sleep
    body mass index >25.5 kg/m22.2 (1.7)-1.7 (1.7)0.2 (1.7)-1.1 (1.8)1.3 (1.8)2.5 (1.8)3.4 (1.8)0.024
Work status
    nonwhite race-8.2 (4.3)-6.2 (4.3)-1.6 (4.4)-17.9 (4.6)-10.6* (4.6)-6.2 (4.9)-3.8 (4.7)0.003
Overall health rating
    epoetin dose > 6000 IU per week1.9 (1.9)2.6 (1.9)-0.2 (2.0)-1.4 (2.0)-3.7 (2.1)-0.8 (2.1)-1.4 (2.1)0.04
Physical functioning
    age > 50.5 yr-0.5 (2.0)-2.7 (2.0)-1.3 (2.0)-4.2* (2.0)-5.2* (2.1)-7.0† (2.2)-6.8† (2.2)0.002
    body mass index > 25.5 kg/m2-0.6 (2.0)0.9 (2.0)2.6 (2.0)2.0 (2.0)2.1 (2.1)5.1* (2.2)7.4§ (2.2)0.002
    diabetic renal disease0.0 (2.6)0.4 (2.6)-2.6 (2.7)-2.7 (2.7)2.3 (2.8)-9.0§ (2.9)-7.9§ (2.8)<0.0001
Role limitations-physical
    body mass index > 25.5 kg/m2-2.4 (4.4)-2.6 (4.4)6.9 (4.4)6.1 (4.5)5.0 (4.7)8.2 (4.8)8.8 (4.8)0.028
Pain
    epoetin dose > 6000 IU per week-3.4 (2.7)0.9 (2.7)3.0 (2.7)-1.0 (2.8)-5.2 (2.9)-1.1 (3.0)-4.9 (2.9)0.027
    transferrin saturation ≤ 32.0%-0.2 (2.6)-3.2 (2.6)-2.1 (2.7)5.1 (2.7)3.1 (2.8)1.5 (2.9)1.8 (2.9)0.03
General health
    body mass index > 25.5 kg/m20.2 (1.7)2.2 (1.7)2.6 (1.7)0.9 (1.8)3.5 (1.8)5.3** (1.9)6.1** (1.9)0.0039
Emotional well-being
    dialysis duration > 9.0 months-3.9* (1.8)0.4 (1.8)-2.9 (1.8)-2.7 (1.8)0.6 (1.9)-2.7 (1.9)-2.3 (1.9)0.04
    body mass index > 25.5 kg/m2-2.1 (1.8)-3.7* (1.8)0.1 (1.8)-1.3 (1.8)0.2 (1.9)2.2 (1.9)2.6 (1.9)0.007
    diabetic renal disease3.9 (2.4)7.1** (2.4)5.6* (2.4)5.1* (2.4)6.9** (2.5)1.7 (2.6)4.1 (2.6)0.04
Role limitations-emotional
    body mass index >25.5 kg/m2-4.5 (4.4)-2.9 (4.4)4.1 (4.4)6.5 (4.5)4.6 (4.7)13.3* (4.8)12.1* (4.8)0.0002
Social function
    body mass index >25.5 kg/m20.1 (2.4)-1.1 (2.5)0.4 (2.5)1.0 (2.5)1.6 (2.6)8.0** (2.7)6.1* (2.7)0.004
Energy/fatigue
    target hemoglobin 13.5 to 14.5 g/dl6.2* (1.9)5.7** (1.9)3.8 (1.9)5.3** (2.0)7.8*** (2.1)5.4* (2.1)3.1 (2.1)0.007
    epoetin > 6000 IU per week1.4 (1.9)2.2 (2.0)4.3* (2.0)-0.4 (2.0)-0.9 (2.1)1.7 (2.2)-2.3 (2.1)0.028
    body mass index > 25.5 kg/m2-1.9 (1.9)-0.8 (1.9)0.7 (1.9)0.6 (2.0)0.3 (2.1)3.3 (2.1)6.3*** (2.1)0.002
  • Repeated measures analysis of variance with mixed modeling was used to estimate changes in quality of life over time. Increasing values represent better quality of life. Parameter estimates are presented with standard errors in parentheses. Adjustment was made for target hemoglobin, hemoglobin, epoetin dose, transferrin saturation, age, sex, race, dialysis duration, body mass index, primary cause of renal disease, European or Canadian patient, vascular access for dialysis and serum albumin. The following reference groups were used: target hemoglobin 10.5 to 11.5 g/dl, hemoglobin > 11.1 g/dl, epoetin dose ≤ 6000 units per week, transferrin saturation > 32.0%, age ≤ 51.5 up years, male sex, white race, dialysis duration ≤ 9.0 months, body mass index ≤ 25.5 kg/m2, renal disease not due to diabetes, Canada, fistula or graft for dialysis access, serum albumin > 4.0 g/dl. No associations were identified for quality of social interaction, cognitive function, effects of kidney disease, dialysis staff encouragement, and patient satisfaction.

  • * P < 0.05,

  • ** P < 0.01,

  • *** P < 0.001,

  • P < 0.0001 for week 24, 36, 48, 72 or 96.