Table 2b.

Indications for symptomatic group (n = 57) in descending order of frequencyb

IndicationNumber of Patients
Prior stonec42
Gross hematuria8
Microhematuria6
Flank pain6
HTN5
Hepatitis B or C4
Diabetes4
UTI4
F/U lithotripsy4
Increased creatinine3
Prostate cancer3
Dysuria3
Weak urinary stream3
Chronic back pain2
F/U renal cyst2
CRI1
Elevated LFTs1
Right or left lower quadrant pain1
Urinary incontinence1
ARF1
Pyelonephritis1
Hyperparathyroidism1
Gout1
Medullary sponge kidney1
Hepatic encephalopathy1
Elevated PSA1
Bladder stone1
Medullary calcinosis1
Ureteral kink1
CVA tenderness1
Urosepsis1
BPH1
  • b ARC, acute renal failure; CRI, chronic renal insufficiency; CVA, costovertebral angle; F/U, follow-up; HTN, hypertension.

  • c Regardless of stone type (includes calcium oxalate, uric acid, and staghorn calculi).