Table 4.

Association of AKI and other factors with 10-yr mortality and cardiovascular eventsa

Dependent VariableAll-Cause Mortality (Hazard Ratio [95% CI])bComposite Cardiovascular Events (Hazard Ratio [95% CI])c
Age (per 10-yr increase)1.77 (1.65 to 1.86)d1.18 (1.09 to 1.28)d
Transient ischemic attacks1.68 (1.32 to 2.14)d
Coronary artery disease1.24 (1.06 to 1.46)e1.33 (1.09 to 1.63)e
Atrial fibrillation1.28 (1.07 to 1.54)e
Heart failure1.85 (1.49 to 2.31)d2.03 (1.53 to 2.68)d
NIHSS neurologic score1.08 (1.07 to 1.09)d
AKI1.24 (1.07 to 1.44)e1.22 (1.01 to 1.48)f
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)
    ≥60 (reference)1.001.00
    ≥30 to <601.20 (1.04 to 1.38)f1.23 (1.02 to 1.48)f
    <301.57 (1.23 to 2.01)d1.45 (1.00 to 2.12)f
Glucose on admission (per 10-mg/dl increase)1.03 (1.02 to 1.04)d1.02 (1.01 to 1.03)f
ACEI/ARB treatment0.41 (0.33 to 0.52)d0.71 (0.56 to 0.90)e
Stroke subtype
    lacunar (reference)1.00
    atherosclerotic1.15 (0.88 to 1.53)
    cardioembolic1.58 (1.23 to 2.04)d
    cryptogenic1.53 (1.18 to 1.99)d
    hemorrhagic1.92 (1.47 to 2.52)d
  • a ACEI/ARB, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker.

  • b Adjusted for gender, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, SBP, brain edema on imaging studies, hematocrit on admission, antihypertensive agent use after the event, and ACEI/ARB and statin use on follow-up.

  • c Adjusted for hypertension, diabetes, stroke subtypes, brain edema on imaging studies, and hematocrit on admission.

  • d P< 0.001.

  • e P < 0.01.

  • f P < 0.05.