Table 1.

Demographics, risk factors, and clinical and laboratory characteristics of 2155 patients with acute stroke according to the presence of AKIa

CharacteristicWith AKI(n = 575)Without AKI(n = 1580)P
Age (yr; mean [SD])71.7 (11.6)69.9 (12.1)0.002
Male gender (n [%])353 (61.4)966 (61.1)NS
History of (n [%])
    hypertension409 (71.1)1087 (68.8)NS
    diabetes153 (26.6)396 (25.1)NS
    hypercholesterolemia164 (28.5)491 (31.1)NS
    cigarette smoking168 (29.2)495 (31.3)NS
    previous transient ischemic attacks47 (8.2)162 (10.3)NS
    atrial fibrillation201 (35.0)467 (29.7)0.019
    coronary artery disease124 (21.6)314 (19.9)NS
    heart failure67 (11.7)104 (6.6)0.001
Clinical presentation and neuroimaging
    delay to admission (h; mean [SD])5.6 (7.1)6.2 (7.7)NS
    SBP (mmHg; mean [SD])159.8 (31.6)158.1 (29.5)NS
    DBP (mmHg; mean [SD])88.6 (14.1)88.3 (13.8)NS
    neurologic impairment (mean [SD])b11.8 (9.6)9.7 (8.8)0.001
    brain edema on imaging studies (n [%])138 (24.0)330 (20.9)NS
Stroke subtypes (n [%])
    lacunar72 (12.5)306 (19.4)0.002
    atherosclerotic94 (16.3)262 (16.6)NS
    cardioembolic197 (34.3)471 (29.8)NS
    cryptogenic112 (19.5)318 (20.1)NS
    hemorrhagic100 (17.4)223 (14.1)NS
Laboratory findings on admission
    hematocrit (%; mean [SD])40.8 (5.4)41.9 (5.4)0.001
    blood glucose (mg/dl; mean [SD])138.5 (63.4)133.3 (60.7)NS
    serum creatinine (mg/dl; mean [SD])1.8 (1.2)1.0 (0.5)0.001
    CKD, GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2; n [%] )0.001
        ≥60185 (13.4)1192 (86.6)
        ≥30 to <60249 (41.2)355 (58.8)
        <30141 (81.0)33 (19.0)
  • a AKI, acute kidney injury; CKD, chronic kidney disease; DBP, diastolic BP; SBP, systolic BP. Numbers in parentheses for nominal data indicate percentages and for continuous SD.

  • b Neurologic impairment on admission assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS; values from 0 [best score] to 36 [worst score]).