Table 2.


CharacteristicAOR95% CIP
Age (per 10 yr)0.980.93 to 1.020.3400
Male (versus female)1.000.89 to 1.120.9700
Race (versus white)
    black0.970.82 to 1.160.7600
    Asian0.670.44 to 1.040.0800
    other0.680.51 to 0.910.0100
Socioeconomic factors
    live alone (versus not alone)1.241.03 to 1.490.0300
    married (versus not married)1.241.09 to 1.400.0010
    attended college (versus no college)1.351.15 to 1.58<0.0001
    employed (versus not employed)1.040.86 to 1.260.6900
Diabetes as cause of ESRD (yes versus no)1.441.17 to 1.770.0010
Comorbidities (yes versus no)
    CAD1.010.89 to 1.150.8600
    CHF0.780.69 to 0.89<0.0001
    other cardiac disease0.940.83 to 1.070.3700
    hypertension1.451.25 to 1.70<0.0001
    CVD1.060.90 to 1.240.5100
    PAD0.990.85 to 1.160.9300
    diabetes1.090.92 to 1.300.3300
    lung disease0.770.66 to 0.900.0010
    cancer (other than skin)0.900.77 to 1.060.2000
    HIV/AIDS0.730.42 to 1.270.2700
    gastrointestinal bleeding0.870.71 to 1.080.2100
    neurologic disease0.750.62 to 0.900.0020
    psychiatric disorder0.870.76 to 0.990.0400
    recurrent cellulitis/gangrene1.210.94 to 1.550.1500
Laboratory data
    hemoglobin (per 1 g/dl higher)1.071.03 to 1.120.0010
    serum albumin (per 1 g/dl higher)1.461.28 to 1.66<0.0001
    serum creatinine (per 1 mg/dl higher)0.940.92 to 0.97<0.0001
Country of residence (versus United States)
    Australia/New Zealand1.850.96 to 3.570.0700
    Belgium0.750.53 to 1.110.1600
    Canada1.140.77 to 1.700.5200
    France2.601.79 to 3.79<0.0001
    Germany1.400.97 to 2.010.0800
    Italy2.371.53 to 3.65<0.0001
    Japan3.552.04 to 6.18<0.0001
    Spain2.852.05 to 3.96<0.0001
    Sweden2.201.39 to 3.360.0010
    United Kingdom1.751.19 to 2.570.0050
  • a n = 8500. The results are from a multivariate analysis adjusting for all factors shown. A visit to a nephrologist at least one month before the initiation of HD was regarded as PNV. AOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; CAD, coronary artery disease; CHF, congestive heart failure; CVD, cerebrovascular disease; PAD, peripheral arterial disease.