Table 2.

Variations in the methods used for the detection of albuminuria or proteinuria

Time of initial specimen collection—may be individual sample or timed specimen.1) Random specimen—with confirmation on a FMUa specimen if initial test is positive
2) FMU specimen
3) Timed specimen (e.g., 0.24 h or overnight)
Method used for measuring albumin/protein in the laboratory1) Albumin concentration (mg/dl)
2) Total protein (mg/dl)
3) Albumin/creatinine ratio (mg/g)
4) Protein/creatinine ratio (mg/mg)
Number of positive specimens needed to define results as being abnormal1) One
2) Two
3) Two out of three
4) Four or more
Frequency of Screening1) Annual
2) Biannual
3) Twice during childhood
  • The units shown above represent one convention only.

  • a FMU = first morning urine.