Table 3.

Studies supporting nephrotoxicity of GBC agentsa

ReferenceStudyContrast AgentDosage (mmol/kg)Renal Function ([Cr] in mg/dl)Result
Sam et al. (27), 2003n = 195 with CKD, no control group CIN >1.0 mg/d at 48 h with oligoanuriaGadopentetate0.28CrCl <80 ml/min, CG 38.2 ± 16 ml/min, mean [Cr] 2.6CIN: 7/195, MRA: 3/153 (1.9%), DSA: 4/42 (9.5%)
Erley et al. (28), 2004Randomized prospective, n = 21, CIN >50%, decrease in GFRGadobutrol = 10 Iohexol = 110.57 ± 0.17[Cr] >1.5 or CrCl <50 ml/min per 1.73 m2, mean [Cr] 3.4CIN: GBC: 5/10 (50%) RC: 5/11 (45%)
Briguori et al. (30), 2006Retrospective, n = 25 (historical controls, n = 32), CIN ≥0.5 mg/dl within 48 h or dialysis within 5 dGadodiamide = 8 Gadobutrol = 17 3:1 mixture with RC0.60 ± 0.30 0.28 to 1.23[Cr] >2 mg/dl or CrCl <40 ml/min, mean [Cr] 2.3CIN: GBC: 7/25 (28%); RC: 2/32 (6.5%)
Ergun et al. (29), 2006Retrospective, n = 91, [Cr] measured pre-GBC, days 1, 3, and 7, and 1 mo, CIN ≥0.5 mg/dl within 72 hGadopentetate, gadodiamide, dotarem0.20Stages 3 and 4 CKD mean [Cr] 33 ml/min, range CrCl 15 to 58, mean [Cr] 4.0CIN: 11/91 (12.1%); CKD Stage 4: 9/11 with CIN
Kane et al. (31), 2008Retrospective, n = 163, [Cr] measured pre-GBC and within 7 d, CIN ≥0.5 mg/dl within 7 dGBC agent, GBC + RC mixture, RC aloneGBC-76 ml, GBC + RC mixture-55 + 37 ml, RC-102 mlStages 3 to 5 CKD GBC [Cr] 2.77, GBC + RC [Cr] 2.63, RC [Cr] 2.48CIN: GBC: 5.3% GBC + RC: 10.5%; RC: 20.6%
TotalN/AN/AAverage dosage ∼0.41 (0.20 to 0.60)Average mean [Cr] ∼3.02, range 2.60 to 4.00CIN: GBC: 5.3 to 50.0%; RC: 6.5 to 45.0%
  • a MRA, magnetic resonance angiography.