Table 2.

Studies supporting renal safety of GBC agentsa

ReferenceStudyContrast AgentDosage (mmol/kg)Renal Function ([Cr] in mg/dl)Result
Niendorf et al. (18), 1993Phase III trial, n = 1171 [Cr] at 24 h, subgroup with [Cr] at 5 dGadopentetate0.10[Cr] <1.3, [Cr] >1.3 to 1.4, [Cr] >1.4No change in [Cr], Subgroup of patients: GFR 20 to 40: [Cr] ↑ 0.25 GFR <20: [Cr] ↑ 0.25
Arsenault et al. (20), 1996Retrospective, n = 136, n = 90 with pre/post [Cr] at 3 dGadopentetate0.10[Cr] >2.0, mean [Cr] 2.5No change in [Cr] baseline (2.5) to day 3 (2.3)
Prince et al. (21), 1996Retrospective, n = 64, [Cr] 2 d pre and 2 d post, CIN ≥0.5 mg/dlGadopentetate, gadodiamide, gadoteridol0.20 to 0.40[Cr] >1.5, mean [Cr] 2.0 ± 1.4CIN: RC- 11/64 (17%) Gado- 0/64 (0%)
Swan et al. (16), 1999Prospective, double-blind random, 32 patients (2:1), CIN >0.5 mg/dlGabobenate dimeglumine0.20CrCl 10 to 30, CrCl 31 to 60, 24-h urineNo CIN
Hammer et al. (22), 1999n = 31, 34 DSAs, mean age 53.1, CIN >0.5 mg/dlGadopentetate0.40[Cr] >1.5CIN: 1/34 (3%)
Spinosa et al. (23), 2000n = 40, LE angiograms, 42 procedures RC- 15, Gado- 20 CIN ≥0.5 mg/dl at 48 hGadodiamideup to 0.40[Cr] >1.5, mean [Cr] 2.2, range [Cr] 1.6 to 3.6RC- 6/15 (40%) GBC- 1/20 (5%)
Spinosa et al. (24), 2001Consecutive patients treated with Gado + CO2, CIN > 0.5 mg/dl at 48 hGadodiamide<0.30[Cr] >1.5, mean [Cr] 2.7CIN: 3/95 (3%)
Sancak et al. (25), 2001n = 16, intravenous Gado for upper extremity or SVCGadodiamide0.30Mean [Cr] 1.5, range [Cr] 1.2 to 1.8Largest increase in [Cr] 0.2 mg/dl
Rieger et al. (26), 2002Prospective, n = 29, 32 procedures (IA and intravenous) CIN >0.5 mg/dl at 72 hGadopentetate0.34 ± 0.06[Cr] >1.5 mean [Cr] 3.6AKI: 1/29 (atheroemboli)
TotalN/AN/AAverage dosage ∼0.26 (0.10 to 0.40)Average mean [Cr] ∼2.36; range 1.2 to 3.6CIN: GBC: 0 to 5% RC: 17 to 40%
  • a CIN, contrast-induced nephropathy; [Cr], serum creatinine concentration; CrCl, creatinine clearance; RC, iodinated radiocontrast; DSA, digital subtraction angiogram; IA, intra-arterial; LE, lower extremity; SVC, superior vena cava.