Table 1.

Traditional and nontraditional risk factorsa

Traditional Risk FactorsNontraditional Factors
Older ageAlbuminuria
Male genderHomocysteine
HypertensionLipoprotein(a) and apolipoprotein(a) isoforms
Higher LDL cholesterolLipoprotein remnants
Lower HDL cholesterolAnemia
DiabetesAbnormal calcium/phosphate metabolism
SmokingExtracellular fluid volume overload
Physical inactivityElectrolyte imbalance
MenopauseOxidative stress
Family history of CVDInflammation (C-reactive protein)
Left ventricular hypertrophyMalnutrition
Thrombogenic factors
Sleep disturbances
Altered nitric oxide/endothelin balance
  • a Reproduced and modified with permission from Sarnak et al. (3).