Table 3.

Albumin binding of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate

VariableBaseline ConcentrationSpiking p-Cresyl SulfateSpiking Indoxyl Sulfate
ConcentrationChange (%)ConcentrationChange (%)
p-Cresyl sulfate
    Total (μM)189.0 (130.6)354.3 (123.4)88.5 (54.1)a186.0 (125.0)−4.9 (4.2)a
    Free (μM)11.6 (13.4)30.1 (24.4)164.2 (109.4)a14.6 (17.2)24.7 (15.3)a
    Free fraction (%)6.7 (4.0)8.6 (4.9)37.1 (20.3)a8.6 (6.2)a27.3 (15.9)a
Indoxyl sulfate
    Total (μM)114.3 (76.3)110.7 (73.7)−3.1 (1.6)a210.4 (66.4)89.4 (125.4)a
    Free (μM)12.8 (13.8)16.8 (17.2)28.5 (12.2)a28.3 (18.4)134.4 (144.0)a
    Free fraction (%)9.3 (4.7)12.1 (6.1)34.3 (13.0)a11.4 (6.2)20.9 (7.5)a
  • Data are expressed as median (interquartile range).

  • a P < 0.001 versus baseline.