Table 5.

Univariate risk factors for the presence of intimal plaque calcification in coronary arteries based on logistic regression analysis

Risk FactorsRight Coronary Artery, ProximalRight Coronary Artery, Distal
RR (95% CI)P valueRR (95% CI)P value
Luminal stenosis (%)1.03 (1.01 to 1.05)<0.0011.02 (1.01 to 1.04)<0.05
Smoking2.67 (1.15 to 6.19)<0.051.22 (0.50 to 2.98)0.66
Diabetes1.64 (0.74 to 3.60)0.222.70 (1.14 to 6.36)<0.05
Age (years)1.02 (0.98 to 1.06)0.411.07 (1.02 to 1.12)<0.01
Serum calcium (mg/dl)1.30 (0.84 to 2.00)0.242.44 (1.22 to 4.89)<0.05
Serum phosphorus (mg/dl)0.88 (0.64 to 1.20)0.421.09 (0.78 to 1.51)0.63
Calcium-phosphorus product (mg2/dl2)1.00 (0.97 to 1.03)0.991.02 (0.99 to 1.06)0.24
Calcium-containing phosphate binder3.04 (0.61 to 15.10)0.176.32 (1.26 to 31.75)<0.05
Hemodialysis2.81 (0.95 to 8.32)0.074.70 (1.51 to 14.66)<0.01
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)0.99 (0.98 to 1.01)0.260.97 (0.95 to 0.99)<0.0005
CRP (mg/dl)1.10 (0.94 to 1.29)0.231.14 (1.01 to 1.30)<0.05
Vitamin D0.25 (0.05 to 1.33)0.111.32 (0.18 to 9.85)0.78
Warfarin1.60 (0.60 to 4.05)0.361.81 (0.64 to 5.14)0.26
Risk FactorsLeft Main Coronary ArteryLeft Anterior Descending Coronary Artery, Proximal
RR (95% CI)P valueRR (95% CI)P value
Luminal stenosis (%)1.01 (0.99 to 1.04)0.181.03 (1.01 to 1.05)<0.01
Smoking0.87 (0.35 to 2.17)0.761.44 (0.54 to 3.84)0.46
Diabetes1.32 (0.57 to 3.07)0.522.08 (0.79 to 5.49)0.14
Age (years)1.03 (0.99 to 1.08)0.121.06 (1.01 to 1.11)<0.05
Serum calcium (mg/dl)0.81 (0.52 to 1.26)0.351.28 (0.79 to 2.01)0.32
Serum phosphorus (mg/dl)0.98 (0.69 to 1.37)0.891.12 (0.76 to 1.64)0.58
Calcium-phosphorus product (mg2/dl2)0.99 (0.96 to 1.02)0.561.01 (0.97 to 1.05)0.55
Calcium-containing phosphate binders10.04 (0.40 to 87.52)0.989.80 (0.30 to 82.40)0.98
Hemodialysis14.2 (1.8 to 111.5)<0.057.53 (0.95 to 59.6)0.06
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)0.97 (0.95 to 0.99)<0.00050.99 (0.97 to 1.00)0.09
CRP (mg/dl)1.64 (1.04 to 2.60)<0.051.32 (0.93 to 1.88)0.12
Vitamin D1.02 (0.18 to 5.86)0.990.61 (0.11 to 3.56)0.58
Warfarin2.84 (0.87 to 9.22)0.084.00 (0.86 to 18.57)0.07
Risk FactorsLeft Anterior Decending Coronary Artery, DistalLeft Circumflex Coronary Artery, Proximal
RR (95% CI)P valueRR (95% CI)P value
Luminal stenosis (%)1.01 (0.99 to 1.03)0.191.03 (1.01 to 1.05)<0.01
Smoking0.68 (0.26 to −1.77)0.431.35 (0.54 to 3.35)0.52
Diabetes1.61 (0.65 to 4.00)0.302.50 (1.00 to 6.25)0.05
Age (years)1.04 (0.99 to 1.09)0.071.03 (0.99 to 1.08)0.16
Serum calcium (mg/dl)1.80 (0.93 to 3.49)0.081.22 (0.78 to 1.93)0.38
Serum phosphorus (mg/dl)1.37 (0.91 to 1.98)0.141.24 (0.85 to 1.79)0.27
Calcium-phosphorus product (mg2/dl2)1.05 (0.99 to 1.09)0.071.03 (0.99 to 1.07)0.19
Calcium-containing phosphate binders12.12 (1.41 to 104.05)<0.053.60 (0.43 to 29.86)0.24
Hemodialysis9.53 (2.44 to 37.2)<0.0052.88 (0.78 to 10.6)0.12
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)0.97 (0.95 to 0.99)<0.0050.97 (0.95 to 0.99)<0.001
CRP (mg/dl)1.10 (0.94 to 1.28)0.231.01 (0.87 to 1.18)0.88
Vitamin D0.45 (0.05 to 4.51)0.500.71 (0.12 to 4.14)0.71
Warfarin1.25 (0.45 to 3.47)0.682.02 (0.62 to 6.61)0.24
Risk FactorsLeft Circumflex Coronary Artery, Distal
RR (95% CI)P value
Risk factors
Luminal stenosis (%)1.02 (1.01 to 1.04)<0.05
Smoking0.63 (0.26 to 1.52)0.30
Diabetes5.10 (2.05 to 12.7)<0.0005
Age (years)1.02 (0.98 to 1.06)0.29
Serum calcium (mg/dl)1.27 (0.80 to 2.01)0.30
Serum phosphorus (mg/dl)1.29 (0.91 to 1.83)0.15
Calcium-phosphorus product (mg2/dl2)1.03 (0.99 to 1.07)0.13
Calcium-containing phosphate binders3.25 (0.78 to 13.50)0.06
Hemodialysis3.84 (1.01 to 8.80)<0.05
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)0.98 (0.96 to 0.99)<0.01
CRP (mg/dl)1.12 (0.97 to 1.30)0.14
Vitamin D1.24 (0.17 to 9.20)0.84
Warfarin1.53 (0.57 to 4.10)0.40