Table 1.

Patients' clinical and biochemical characteristicsa

Patient CharacteristicsPatients without CKDPatients with CKD1/2Patients with CKD3Patients with CKD4/5Patients with CKD5D
Number of subjects1515481623
Age (years)63 ± 1369 ± 1070 ± 11c73 ± 9c66 ± 12
Gender (% male)8073638178
eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2)111 ± 2272 ± 10b48 ± 11c,e15 ± 6c,e,g
Body mass index (kg/m2)22 ± 522 ± 321 ± 321 ± 221 ± 4
Comorbid conditions (% yes)
Hypertension476077100b,d91b,d
Diabetes1367b46b63b52b
Dyslipidemia3347401938
Smoking5360526378
Coronary artery disease (single vessel disease)202023626
Coronary artery disease (double vessel disease)2013251935
Coronary artery disease (triple vessel disease)6067527539
Cerebrovascular disease4053385618
Peripheral vascular disease713152527
Aortic aneurysm2720212527
Laboratory parameters
Total protein (g/dl)6.6 ± 0.76.2 ± 1.16.4 ± 0.96.0 ± 0.7c6.5 ± 0.8h
Serum albumin (g/dl)3.8 ± 0.63.5 ± 0.83.7 ± 0.53.4 ± 0.5c3.4 ± 0.6c
Hematocrit (%)41 ± 538 ± 536 ± 7c32 ± 7b,d,f31 ± 6b,e,g
Serum phosphorus (mg/dl)3.4 ± 0.92.7 ± 0.93.4 ± 1.1c3.9 ± 0.9e4.8 ± 1.6b,e,g,h
Serum calcium (mg/dl)9.3 ± 0.49.1 ± 0.69.2 ± 1.09.1 ± 0.59.9 ± 1.6f
Calcium-phosphorus product (mg2/dl2)32 ± 924 ± 931 ± 11d36 ± 8e47 ± 17b,e,g,h
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)161 ± 40186 ± 30166 ± 49210 ± 57b177 ± 46h
Glucose (mg/dl)142 ± 58156 ± 63156 ± 87160 ± 67136 ± 63
CRP (mg/dl)1.0 ± 1.30.4 ± 0.21.6 ± 2.22.6 ± 2.8b,d3.7 ± 4.8b,d,f
Medications (% yes)
Calcium-containing phosphate binders000643c,e,g,i
Aluminum-containing phosphate binders00009b,d,f,h
Calcium channel blockers5380678152
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors2027231339
hb blockers713152539
Statins137101917
Vitamin D074017
Warfarin733231922
  • a Data refer to the mean ± SD.

  • Versus without CKD:

  • b P <0.05,

  • c P <0.01.

  • versus CKD1/2:

  • d P <0.05,

  • e P <0.01.

  • Versus CKD3:

  • f P <0.05,

  • g P <0.01.

  • Versus CKD4/5:

  • h P <0.05,

  • i P <0.01.

  • CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated GFR; CRP, C-reactive protein.