Table 1.

Characteristics of incident patients with ESRD by vitality levelsa

CharacteristicLowest Vitality (Scores ≤25)>25 to ≤40>40 to ≤55Highest Vitality (Scores >55)OverallP
N272 (29.6%)197 (21.5%)237 (25.8%)211 (23.0%)917
Vitality score14.1 ± 8.434.8 ± 4.049.7 ± 3.971.1 ± 10.440.9 ± 22.5<0.001
Age (n = 917)57.3 ± 15.259.2 ± 15.159.1 ± 13.856.1 ± 14.757.9 ± 14.80.08
Male (n = 917)136 (27.9%)104 (21.3%)130 (26.7%)117 (24.0%)487 (53.1%)0.60
Race (n = 917)<0.001
    White (n = 621)200 (32.2%)148 (23.8%)153 (24.6%)120 (19.3%)621 (67.7%)
    Black (n = 254)64 (25.2%)44 (17.3%)75 (29.5%)71 (27.9%)254 (27.7%)
    Others (n = 42)8 (19.1%)5 (11.9%)9 (21.4%)20 (47.6%)42 (4.6%)
Less than high school (n = 906)78 (30.1%)51 (26.0%)70 (27.0%)60 (23.2%)259 (28.6%)0.82
Unemployed (n = 917)11 (28.9%)8 (21.0%)7 (18.4%)12 (31.6%)38 (4.1%)0.54
Married (n = 914)148 (29.2%)119 (23.4%)128 (25.3%)112 (22.1%)507 (55.5%)0.45
Cause of renal failure (n = 917)0.16
    Diabetes134 (31.9%)84 (20.1%)108 (25.8%)93 (22.2%)419 (45.7%)
    Hypertension41 (25.6%)29 (18.1%)51 (31.8%)39 (24.4%)160 (17.5%)
    Glomerulonephritis40 (25.2%)36 (22.6%)39 (24.5%)44 (27.6%)159 (17.3%)
    Other57 (31.8%)48 (26.8%)39 (21.7%)35 (19.6%)179 (19.5%)
Hemodialysis (n = 917)200 (29.3%)155 (22.5%)176 (25.5%)158 (22.9%)689 (75.1%)0.61
Comorbidity (n = 916)<0.001
    ICED 0 to 166 (20.3%)60 (18.4%)103 (31.6%)97 (29.7%)326 (35.6%)
    ICED 2116 (35.8%)68 (21.0%)80 (24.7%)60 (18.5%)324 (35.4%)
    ICED 389 (33.5%)69 (25.9%)54 (20.3%)54 (20.3%)266 (29.0%)
Current smoker (n = 910)49 (35.5%)33 (23.9%)32 (23.2%)24 (17.4%)138 (15.2%)0.15
Current alcohol (n = 655)27 (26.5%)23 (22.5%)29 (28.4%)23 (22.5%)102 (15.6%)0.93
Physical exercise (n = 900)34 (17.8%)32 (16.8%)55 (28.8%)70 (36.7%)191 (21.2%)<0.001
BMI (kg/m2; n = 852)27.8 ± 7.426.9 ± 6.826.6 ± 5.927.2 ± 7.127.1 ± 6.90.48
Number of good waking hours (n = 835)9.9 ± 9.19.8 ± 4.712.2 ± 14.714.5 ± 31.811.5 ± 17.5<0.001
Benzodiazepines (n = 917)38 (43.2%)26 (29.5%)16 (18.2%)8 (9.1%)88 (9.6%)<0.001
Antidepressants (n = 917)47 (37.9%)36 (29.0%)26 (21.0%)15 (12.1%)124 (13.5%)<0.01
Albumin (mg/dl; n = 894)3.6 ± 0.43.7 ± 0.43.6 ± 0.43.7 ± 0.33.6 ± 0.40.01
Creatinine (mg/dl; n = 896)7.1 ± 2.77.1 ± 2.47.3 ± 2.67.6 ± 2.37.3 ± 2.5<0.01
Hematocrit (n = 889)32.2 ± 3.932.2 ± 3.432.8 ± 4.332.4 ± 4.032.5 ± 4.10.32
Phosphate (mg/dl; n = 895)5.2 ± 1.45.2 ± 1.35.3 ± 1.45.2 ± 1.35.2 ± 1.30.91
Kt/V (n = 628)1.3 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.40.76
CRP (mg/l; n = 790)9.1 ± 12.77.9 ± 9.48.4 ± 12.86.4 ± 9.98.4 ± 12.5<0.01
Fibrinogen (mg/dl; n = 714)371.1 ± 121.6368.0 ± 101.1380.7 ± 129.2374.5 ± 129.7375.3 ± 121.90.81
IL-6 (pg/ml; n = 789)7.4 ± 9.36.7 ± 7.47.8 ± 11.66.7 ± 11.57.3 ± 10.40.005
Sleep quality (n = 903)51.1 ± 22.454.6 ± 19.761.7 ± 21.966.6 ± 21.158.2 ± 22.2<0.001
Mental component summary (MCS) (n = 867)38.6 ± 10.645.1 ± 10.049.1 ± 9.554.8 ± 8.946.4 ± 11.5<0.001
Physical component summary (PCS) (n = 867)27.5 ± 7.830.2 ± 8.733.1 ± 9.041.1 ± 8.932.6 ± 10.0<0.001
Bodily pain (BP) (n = 914)44.4 ± 25.750.4 ± 24.458.2 ± 26.274.2 ± 23.856.3 ± 27.5<0.001
  • a χ2 for categorical variables and Kruskal-Wallis for continuous variables.

  • n = 917 (participants who responded to the CHEQ questionnaire and completed items regarding vitality at the initiation of dialysis).