Table 2.

Causes of AKI with ecstasy

Nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis
    secondary to hyperpyrexia
    secondary to extreme exertion
    secondary to direct toxicity (unknown)
Necrotizing vasculitis (rare case reports)
Obstructive uropathy secondary to bladder neck obstruction (one case report)
Malignant hypertension
Proximal tubule dysfunction (one case report)
Volume depletion (from sweating, hyperpyrexia)