Table 1.

Clinical syndromes associated with MDMAa

CNS
    acute: hyperactivity, lack of appetite, jaw clenching, dry mouth, increased thirst, restlessness, palpitations, impaired balance, difficulty in concentration, dizziness, drowsiness, nystagmus, hot flashes, muscular tension, weakness, insomnia, confusion, anxiety, tremor
    serious acute: panic attacks, delirium, psychosis, depression
    chronic: serotonin depletion, neurotoxicity, chronic psychosis, cognitive defects
Cardiovascular
    hypertension
    tachycardia
    tachyarrhythmias
    sudden death
    cardiac ischemia
    cardiomyopathy
Gastrointestinal
    acute hepatotoxicity
    fulminant hepatic failure
Renal
    AKI
    hyponatremia
Musculoskeletal
    rhabdomyolysis (may have associated disseminated intravascular coagulation)
Endocrine
    hypoglycemia
    lower testosterone levels
Pulmonary
    pneumothorax
    pneumomediastinum
  • a AKI, acute kidney injury; CNS, central nervous system; MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine.