Table 1.

Disorders produced or aggravated by low vitamin D statusa

DisorderStrength of Evidence
Osteoporosis++++
Falls++++
Type 1 diabetes++
Cancer++++
Autoimmune diseases++
Hypertension+++
Periodontal disease++++
Multiple Sclerosis++
Susceptibility/poor response to infection++++
Osteoarthritis++
  • a ++++, strong evidence including one or more randomized trials; +++, strong and consistent epidemiologic evidence, without, however, evidence from randomized trials; ++ and +, less strong evidence that is nevertheless suggestive.