Table 1.

Main studies evaluating the relationships between ACE I/D genotypes and response to ACE inhibitor therapy in diabetic renal disease

Penno et al. (39), 1998Jacobsen et al. (40), 2003Parving et al. (41), 1996Jacobsen et al. (42), 1998So et al. (44), 2006Ha et al. (45), 2000
EthnicityWhiteWhiteWhiteWhiteAsianAsian
Type of diabetesIIIIIIII
No. of patients5301693560208983
Follow-up (yr)2670.53.70.25
Patient characteristicsNormotension, normoalbuminuria (75%), or microalbuminuria (15%)Persistent microalbuminuriaMacroalbuminuriaOvert nephropathyNormoalbuminuria (58.6%), microalbuminuria (21.2%), or macroalbuminuria (20.2%)Overt nephropathy
Baseline characteristics of genotype groupsComparableComparableComparable (no data on gender distribution)ComparableComparableUnbalanced albuminuria
Treatment in genotype groupsComparableComparableComparableComparableComparableComparable
Adjustments for relevant covariatesYesYesYesYesYesPartial
Effect of ACE inhibitor therapyAlbuminuria reduction versus placebo: II, 51.3%; ID, 14.8%; DD, 7.7%Rate ratio of doubling serum creatinine or ESKD for each D allele: 1.81 (95% CI, 1.09-3.03)More albuminuria reduction and slower GFR decline in II than ID + DDMore albuminuria reduction in II than ID or DDHazard ratio for the renal composite endpoint: DD, 0.95; ID, 0.43; II, 0.52Albuminuria reduction: DD, 52.6%; ID, 19.2%; II, 24.8%