Table 1.

Patient demographic and clinical characteristics

DemographicsOverall (n = 421)Inpatient (n = 127)Outpatient (n = 294)P
    age (yr)69 ± 1070 ± 1069 ± 100.5
    male403 (96)121 (95)282 (96)0.8
    white385 (91)114 (90)271 (92)0.5
    black31 (7)11 (9)20 (7)0.5
Comorbid illnesses
    diabetes mellitus172 (41)60 (47)112 (38)0.09
    liver disease59 (14)20 (16)39 (13)0.5
    congestive heart failure68 (16)30 (24)38 (13)0.01
    peripheral vascular disease54 (13)19 (15)35 (12)0.4
    cerebrovascular disease45 (11)23 (18)22 (7)<0.01
Baseline renal function
    serum creatinine (mg/dl)1.4 (1.3, 1.5)1.4 (1.3, 1.5)1.4 (1.3, 1.5)1.0
    eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)53 (48, 57)52 (49, 56)53 (48, 57)0.7
    eGFR 30–59 ml/min per 1.73 m2421 (100)127 (100)294 (100)1.0
    eGFR 15–29 ml/min per 1.73 m20 (0)0 (0)0 (0)NC
    eGFR <15 ml/min per 1.73 m20 (0)0 (0)0 (0)NC
Preexisting medication use
    nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories40 (10)11 (9)29 (10)0.9
    loop diuretics101 (24)36 (28)65 (22)0.2
    angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors161 (38)42 (33)119 (40)0.2
    theophylline2 (0.5)1 (1.0)1 (0.3)0.5
  • eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; NC, not calculable. Data are n (%), mean ± SD, or median (interquartile range).