Table 4.

Characteristics of patients who had diabetic nephropathy and underwent follow-up evaluationa

CharacteristicOverallDeficiency (<15 ng/ml)Insufficiency (15 to 30 ng/ml)Optimal (>30 ng/ml)P
Number72243315
Age (yr)57.5 ± 0.953.8 ± 1.357.5 ± 1.263.3 ± 2.0<0.001
Male gender (%)432949530.230
Race/ethnicity (%)
    Latino899682930.210
    white114187
Diabetes duration (yr)15.4 ± 0.716.0 ± 1.214.2 ± 1.016.8 ± 1.70.310
Current smokers (%)1041800.080
Hypertension (%)9496911000.420
Dyslipidemia (%)888894730.140
Baseline BMI (kg/m2)31.1 ± 0.933.6 ± 1.730.7 ± 1.427.7 ± 1.40.060
Baseline serum CRPa0.4 (0.1, 0.6)0.4 (0.2, 0.5)0.5 (0.1, 0.7)0.2 (0.1, 0.6)0.280
Baseline HbA1c (%)8.9 ± 0.38.5 ± 0.58.9 ± 0.49.7 ± 0.70.320
Baseline serum albumin (g/dl)3.2 ± 0.12.8 ± 0.13.3 ± 0.13.5 ± 0.1<0.001
Baseline serum creatinine (mg/dl)a1.3 (1.0, 1.7)1.5 (1.1, 1.8)1.3 (1.0, 1.8)1.0 (0.8, 1.3)0.090
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)
    baseline53 (37, 75)44 (35, 64)52 (37, 74)75 (47, 80)0.060
    follow-up44 (27, 58)33 (16, 53)39 (27, 58)59 (43, 80)0.010
    change−11 (−21, −4)−16 (−27, −4)−12 (−16, −5)−8 (−14, −2)0.560
Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/mg)a
    baseline2.1 (1.0, 4.1)4.1 (1.8, 5.1)2.0 (1.1, 3.7)1.4 (0.6, 2.5)0.006
    follow-up2.3 (0.7, 4.8)3.7 (1.9, 6.9)1.6 (0.6, 4.1)0.9 (0.5, 3.2)0.008
Corrected serum calcium (mg/dl)
    baseline9.8 ± 0.09.7 ± 0.19.8 ± 0.19.8 ± 0.10.950
    follow-up9.7 ± 0.19.7 ± 0.19.6 ± 0.19.8 ± 0.10.140
Serum phosphorus (mg/dl)
    baseline4.3 ± 0.14.3 ± 0.14.4 ± 0.14.3 ± 0.10.510
    follow-up4.4 ± 0.14.5 ± 0.34.4 ± 0.14.2 ± 0.20.670
Serum PTH (pg/ml)a
    baseline53 (35, 87)70 (46, 109)45 (34, 67)47 (32, 71)0.060
    follow-up61 (36, 96)71 (51, 112)49 (28, 91)52 (28, 72)0.040
Serum 25OHD levels (ng/ml)
    baseline20.9 ± 1.29.7 ± 0.622.6 ± 0.735.5 ± 1.0<0.001
    follow-up19.3 ± 1.112.2 ± 1.220.3 ± 1.428.3 ± 3.5<0.001
    change−1.7 ± 1.12.5 ± 1.4−2.3 ± 1.4−7.1 ± 3.60.008
Vitamin D category on follow-up (n [%])
    deficient26 (36)17 (71)7 (21)2 (13)<0.001
    insufficient34 (47)6 (25)22 (67)6 (40)
    optimal12 (17)1 (4)4 (12)7 (47)
  • a Median {25th, 75th percentiles).