Table 3.

Characteristics of patients with diabetic nephropathy enrolled in study Ba

CharacteristicOverallDeficiency (<15 ng/ml)Insufficiency (15 to 30 ng/ml)Optimal (>30 ng/ml)P
n146556625
Age (yr)57.0 ± 0.654.0 ± 0.957.5 ± 0.862.5 ± 1.8<0.001
Male gender (%)514059520.110
Race/ethnicity (%)
    Latino776682880.002
    black102430
    white13111512
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)b1.3 (1.0, 1.8)1.6 (1.1, 2.1)1.3 (1.0, 1.8)1.0 (0.8, 1.5)0.003
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)55.4 ± 2.147.9 ± 23.857.3 ± 2.966.8 ± 5.10.004
Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/mg)b1.99 (0.79, 3.93)3.02 (0.85, 4.31)2.05 (0.97, 3.77)0.91 (0.58, 2.21)0.020
Diabetes duration (yr)15.3 ± 0.516.7 ± 0.914.3 ± 0.715.2 ± 1.20.110
Current smokers (%)13915160.550
Hypertension (%)9596911000.180
Dyslipidemia (%)848286840.790
BMI (kg/m2)31.2 ± 0.632.7 ± 1.030.7 ± 1.029.2 ± 1.10.110
Serum CRPb0.4 (0.1, 0.8)0.5 (0.1, 0.9)0.4 (0.1, 0.9)0.2 (0.1, 0.5)0.200
HbA1c (%)8.6 ± 0.28.3 ± 0.48.7 ± 0.39.1 ± 0.40.350
Serum albumin (g/dl)3.2 ± 0.13.1 ± 0.13.3 ± 0.13.5 ± 0.10.002
Corrected serum calcium (mg/dl)9.8 ± 0.09.7 ± 0.19.8 ± 0.19.8 ± 0.10.630
Serum phosphorus (mg/dl)4.3 ± 0.14.4 ± 0.14.3 ± 0.14.2 ± 0.10.310
Serum PTH (pg/ml)b51 (32, 79)61 (40, 112)45 (31, 67)40 (22, 55)<0.001
BMD (mg/cm3)130.2 ± 4.3143.4 ± 6.2127.0 ± 7.0108.3 ± 8.30.020
Prevalence of T score <−1.0 (%)64566679
Coronary artery calcification
    Prevalence (score >10) (%)755883880.002
    scoreb149 (9, 488)85 (0, 325)200 (25, 637)196 (59, 370)0.040
  • a BMD, bone mineral density; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; PTH, parathyroid hormone.

  • b Median (25th, 75th percentiles).