Table 2.

Cardiovascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular disease, and predicted Framingham risk scores

Current smoker20%(108/532a)
Left ventricular hypertrophy20%(102/513a)
Diabetes mellitus
Systolic BP (mmHg)133 ± 17
Diastolic BP (mmHg)78 ± 10
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.2 ± 1.1
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.3 ± 0.4
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)3.0 ± 0.9
Proteinuria (>negative)31%
Albumin (g/L)38 ± 4
Hemoglobin (g/L)130 ± 16
10-yr cardiac risk score11.7 ± 11.0
10-yr stroke risk score8.7 ± 9.8
Any cardiovascular diseaseb28%
    Myocardial infarction11.3%
    Congestive heart failure9.6%
    Coronary bypass surgery/angioplasty7.2%
    Peripheral vascular disease4.9%
    Atrial fibrillation3.0%
  • a Information was missing in some patients. Those without information on smoking or EKG were assumed to be nonsmokers in calculating cardiovascular disease risk (13).

  • b An individual may have more than one cardiovascular disease.