Table 1.

Randomized trials of intravenous fluidsa

StudyNo. of PatientsIntravenous Fluid ComparisonIntravenous Fluid RateIntravenous Fluid DurationBaseline SCrRates of CINP
Solomon et al. (10)780.45% NaClb1 ml/kg per h12 h before and 12 h after2.1 mg/dl11 versus 25 versus 40%c<0.05
Mueller et al. (12)13830.45% NaCl  versus 0.9% NaCl1 ml/kg per hBefore and 12 h after0.9 mg/dl2.0 versus 0.7%0.04
Krasuski et al. (33)630.45% NaCl  versus 0.9% NaCl0.45% NaCl: 1 ml/kg per h 12 h before and after 250 ml 0.9% NaCl 20 min before and 1 ml/kg per h 0.45% NaCl 12 h after1.8 to 1.9 mg/dl10.8 versus 0.0%0.136
Bader et al. (34)390.9% NaCl (both groups)300 ml once  versus 2000 ml over 24 h0.9 mg/dl15.0 versus 5.3%0.605
Merten et al. (11)119NaHCO3versus NaCl3 ml/kg per h before and 1 ml/kg per h after1 h before and 6 h after1.71 to 1.89 mg/dl13.6 versus 1.7%0.02
Briguori et al. (35)326NaHCO3versus NaClNaHCO3: 3 ml/kg per h before and 1 ml/kg per h after NaCl: 1 ml/kg per hNaHCO3: 1 h before and 6 h after NaCl: 12 h before and 12 h after1.93 to 2.04 mg/dl1.9 versus 9.9%d0.019d
Recio-Mayoral et al. (36)111NaHCO3versus NaClNaHCO3: 5 ml/kg per h before and 1.5 ml/kg per h after NaCl: 1 ml/kg per h afterNaHCO3: 1 h before and 12 h after NaCl: 12 h after1.0 mg/dl1.8 versus 21.8%<0.001
  • a Studies are not rated for quality. CIN, contrast-induced nephropathy; SCr, serum creatinine.

  • b 0.45% NaCl versus 0.45% NaCl + intravenous mannitol versus 0.45% NaCl + intravenous furosemide.

  • c Saline versus saline/mannitol versus saline/furosemide, respectively.

  • d Denotes comparison of NaHCO3/N-acetylcysteine (NAC) versus NaCl/NAC.