Table 2.

Independent Predictors of Short- and Long-Term Mortality in Patients Undergoing Contrast Procedures in Addition to CIN

ReferenceStudy Exclusion CriteriaIndependent Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality (OR; 95% CI)Independent Predictors of Long-Term Mortality (OR; 95% CI)
Rihal et al., 2002 (3)•No medical criteria
  • Age (1.03; 1.01 to 1.05)

  • CHF (2.24; 1.51 to 3.32)

  • Emergent procedure (3.12; 1.79 to 5.42)

  • Multivessel procedure (1.85; 1.29 to 2.66)

  • Preprocedural shock (12.12; 8.11 to 18.13)

  • PVD (2.08; 1.35 to 3.20)

  • CIN (10.83; 6.91 to 16.98)

Gruberg et al., 2000 (8)
  • SCr < 1.8 mg/dl

  • Dialysis dependence

  • Creatinine elevation (3.86; 1.96 to 7.58)

  • Age (1.05; 1.05 to 1.09)

  • Location of vein graft lesion (1.55; 0.95 to 2.52)

Gruberg et al., 2001 (9)• Dialysis dependence
  • IABP use (1.88; 1.52 to 2.32)

  • Age increase by 10 yr (2.52; 1.86 to 3.42)

  • Non–Q-wave infarction (2.76; 1.08 to 7.01)

  • CK-MB 3× normal (3.98; 1.45 to 10.94)

  • Dialysis (5.82; 2.22 to 15.26)

  • Creatinine increase by 5 g/dl from baseline (6.25; 2.25 to 17.80)

  • Age increase by 10 yr (1.53; 1.28 to 1.83)

  • IABP use (1.58 (1.41 to 1.78)

  • CPK 3× normal (1.64; 1.24 to 2.17)

  • Vein graft intervention (1.72; 1.28 to 2.31)

  • Diabetes (2.00; 1.54 to 2.61)

  • Creatinine increase by 5 mg/dl from baseline (2.86; 1.27 to 6.47)

  • In-hospital dialysis (4.15; 1.27 to 6.47)

  • CrCl (0.96; 0.93 to 0.99)

Dangas et al., 2005 (4)
  • Acute ST-elevation AMI within 48 h of procedure

  • Cardiogenic shock

  • Baseline ESRD

  • Hypotension (CKD+: 3.18; 2.08 to 4.86) (CKD−: 2.70; 1.76 to 4.14)

  • Diabetes (CKD+: 1.92; 1.34 to 2.76) (CKD−: 1.56; 1.12 to 2.19)

  • PVD (CKD+: 1.85; 1.30 to 2.65) (CKD−: 1.78; 1.23 to 2.59)

  • IABP use (CKD+: 2.49; 1.41 to 4.41) (CKD−:2.04;1.11 to 3.76)

  • LVEF <40% (CKD+: 1.66; 1.15 to 2.41) (CKD−: 3.26; 2.32 to 4.58)

  • Older age (CKD+: 1.03; 1.01 to 1.05) (CKD−: 1.03; 1.01 to 1.04)

  • eGFR (CKD+: 0.97; 0.96 to 0.99)

  • Baseline hematocrit (CKD−: 0.90 (0.86 to 0.93)

  • Previous stroke (CKD−: 1.55; 1.01 to 2.39)

Levy et al., 1996 (11)• No medical criteria
  • Liver disease (18.03; 2.91 to 13.19)

  • Age >60 yr (4.69; 2.24 to 9.83)

  • Physiologic Severity Scoreb (1.23; 1.09 to 1.39)

  • aCHF, congestive heart failure; CK-MB, creatine kinase-MB fraction; CPK, creatine phosphokinase; CrCl, creatinine clearance; IABP, intra-aortic balloon pump; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; AMI, acute myocardial infarction, PVD, peripheral vascular disease.

  • b The Physiologic Severity Score was a dimensional variable with values ranging from 0 to 17 and was based on temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, oxygenation, pH, serum sodium and potassium levels, hematocrit, and white blood cell count.