Table 1.

Mortality Rates Associated with Contrast-Induced Nephropathy

ReferenceNo. of Patients and Type of Contrast ProceduresCIN Definition (Size of Increase in SCr from Baseline)In-Hospital Mortality Rates: CIN vs No CINLong-Term Mortality Rates: CIN vs No CIN
McCullough et al., 1997 (5)1826 in a derivation set, 2251 in a validation set; PCI>25% during first 5 days7.1% vs 1.1%;35.7% for dialysis-dependent (P < 0.0000001)
Rihal et al., 2002 (3)254 with CIN, 6890 without CIN; PCI>0.5 mg/dl during first 48 h22.0% vs 1.4% (P < 0.001)12.1% vs 3.7% (P < 0.0001) (1-yr hospital survivors);44.6% vs 14.5% (P < 0.0001) (5-yr hospital survivors)
Gruberg et al., 2000 (8)439 with CKD (SCr ≥1.8 mg/dl) not dialysis-dependent; PCI≥25% during first 2 days or needing dialysis14.9% vs 4.9%;22.6% for dialysis-dependent (P < 0.001)37.7% vs 19.4% (P = 0.001) (1-yr cumulative rate)
Gruberg et al., 2001 (9)7741; PCIRequiring dialysis27.5% vs 1.0% (P < 0.001)54.5% vs 6.4% (P < 0.0001) (1-yr cumulative rate)
Dangas et al., 2005 (4)5250 CKD(+), 1980 CKD(−); PCI≥25% or ≥0.5 mg/dl during first 48 h6.3% vs 0.8% (CKD(+), P < 0.0001);2.5% vs 0.1% (CKD(−), P < 0.0001)22.6% vs 6.9% (CKD(+); P < 0.0001)8.0% vs 2.7% (CKD(−); P < 0.0001) (1-yr cumulative rate)
Levy et al., 1996 (11)183 with CIN, 183 matched control subjects; various procedures (about half angiography)≥25% to ≥2 mg/dl during first 2 days34% vs 7% (P < 0.001)
  • CIN, contrast-induced nephropathy; CKD, chronic kidney disease, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; SCr, serum creatinine.