Table 1.

Current and future erythropoietic agents for the treatment of CKD anemiaa

Protein-based ESA therapy
    epoetin (alfa, beta, delta, omega)
    biosimilar EPO
    darbepoetin alfa
    CERA
    SEP
    EPO fusion proteins
        EPO–EPO
        GM-CSF–EPO
        Fc-EPO
        CTNO 528
Small-molecule ESA
    peptide-based (e.g., Hematide)
    non–peptide-based
Other strategies for stimulating erythropoiesis
    prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (HIF stabilizers)
    GATA inhibitors
    HCP inhibitors
    EPO gene therapy
  • a CKD, chronic kidney disease; EPO, erythropoietin; ESA, erythropoiesis-stimulating agent; GM-CSF, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor; HCP, hemopoietic cell phosphatase; HIF, hypoxia-inducible factor; SEP, synthetic erythropoiesis protein.