Table 3.

Association of CN relative to no treatment according to manner of administration of each treatment adjusted for multiple risk factorsa

VariableNOR (95% CI)P Value
Sodium bicarbonate alone
    Sodium bicarbonate administered per the Merten et al. protocol (23)432.26 (1.04 to 4.53)0.03
    Sodium bicarbonate administration deviated from the Merten et al. protocol (23)2253.23 (2.33 to 4.46)<0.001
NAC alone
    NAC administered over 2 d per Tepel protocol (34)2300.81 (0.49 to 1.28)0.38
    NAC administration deviated from the Tepel protocol (34)3861.38 (0.99 to 1.91)0.05
Sodium bicarbonate + NAC
    Sodium bicarbonate administered per the Merten et al. protocol & NAC administered over 2 d200.97 (0.21 to 3.32)0.96
    Sodium bicarbonate administration deviated from the Merten et al. protocol & NAC deviated administration901.30 (0.68 to 2.31)0.40
    Sodium bicarbonate administered per the Merten et al. protocol & NAC deviated administration611.35 (0.62 to 2.67)0.42
    Sodium bicarbonate administration deviated from the Merten et al. protocol & NAC administered over 2 d500.40 (0.09 to 1.27)0.17
No Treatment1.00
  • a Adjusted for total volume of hydration, β -blocker, diuretic, NSAIDs, ACE inhibitors/ARBs and aspirin therapies, age, gender, prior creatinine, contrast iodine load, prior exposure to contrast material, type of imaging study, heart failure, hypertension, renal failure, multiple myeloma, and diabetes mellitus.