Table 2.

Sex-specific albuminuria in Add Health Wave III study respondents (n = 4463)a

CharacteristicAlbuminuria(n = 194)No Albuminuria(n = 4269)P
Age (yr; mean ± SEM)21.6 ± 0.221.7 ± 0.10.86
Male (% [SE])67 (4.7)63 (1.0)0.43
Ethnicity (% [SE])68.5 (5.3)72.1 (2.7)0.32d
    white
    black17.0 (4.0)12.6 (1.7)
    Hispanic12.9 (4.1)10.8 (1.5)
    Asian1.2 (0.7)3.5 (0.9)
    Native American0.4 (0.4)1.0 (0.4)
Education ≤12 yr (% [SE])45.3 (5.3)46.3 (2.1)0.84
BMI ≥95th percentile at Wave I (% [SE])27.1 (6.0)19.2 (1.1)0.22
BMI (kg/m2)29.4 ± 0.628.3 ± 0.20.01
BMI category (kg/m2; % [SE])
    <2531.4 (4.9)35.9 (1.2)0.10e
    25 to <3031.1 (4.9)31.7 (1.0)
    30 to <3513.9 (3.2)18.0 (0.9)
    ≥3523.6 (4.1)14.4 (0.9)
Health insurance (yes; % [SE])71.2 (4.0)74.3 (1.2)0.45
Condition (yes; % [SE])b
    diabetes2.8 (1.9)0.9 (0.2)0.32
    glycosuria4.7 (2.3)1.1 (0.2)0.15
    diabetes and/or glycosuria5.9 (2.5)1.8 (0.3)0.18
    hypertension9.8 (3.6)6.2 (0.5)0.33
Exercise (yes; % [SE])
    ≥2 times/wk48.5 (4.9)53.0 (1.1)0.36
    heavy exercise ≥2 times/wk37.0 (4.7)36.6 (1.1)0.93
Smoking (yes; % [SE])c67.2 (6.6)64.7 (1.5)0.70
  • a Albuminuria ≥17 in men and ≥25 mg/g in women. Weighted to reflect the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States.

  • b Hypertension and diabetes history were by self-report.

  • c Smoked in the past 30 d.

  • d P value was calculated comparing Hispanic and black individuals with all others (white, Asian, and Native American). Other race/ethnicity groupings resulted in similar P values.

  • e P value for overall association.