Table 1.

Characteristics of patients who had been followed for 3 yr at baseline and after 3 yr of follow-upa

CharacteristicBaseline Characteristics of Lost Individuals without Diabetes and CKDBaseline Characteristics of All Followed Individuals without Diabetes and CKDCharacteristics of Individuals with MS at BaselineCharacteristics of Individuals without MS at BaselineFollow-Up CharacteristicsPb
n37784607101035974607
Age (yr; mean [SD])34.8 (12.7)39.3 (12.9)48.0 (12)36.5 (12.2)42.7 (12.8)<0.001
Male gender (%)42.141.847.640.141.8<0.001
Hypertension (%)13.517.259.85.215.4<0.001
Obesity (BMI ≥30; %)20.524.5 (M = 16, F = 30)44.4 (M = 29, F = 57)19 (M = 11, F = 24)30.6<0.001
SBP (mmHg; mean [SD])115 (16)117.3 (16.8)135.6 (17.8)122.2 (12.4)115.4 (17.2)<0.001
DBP (mmHg; mean [SD])76.3 (10.3)77.6 (10.3)89.2 (8.8)74.4 (8.2)74.9 (10.4)<0.001
BMI (mean [SD])26.1 (5)27.0 (4.7)29.9 (4.0)26.1 (4.5)27.9 (4.8)<0.001
Waist circumference (cm; mean [SD])85.3 (12.8)87.7 (12.4)96.8 (9.8)85.1 (11.7)92.3 (12.3)<0.001
Laboratory values
    triglycerides (mg/dl; mean [SD])151.6 (108.6)164.5 (105)229 (126.7)146.4 (90)159.0 (102.8)<0.001
    total cholesterol (mg/dl; mean [SD])195.5 (43.6)205 (44.7)225.6 (45.7)199.2 (42.6)191.7 (40.3)<0.001
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl; mean [SD])42.1 (10.8)42.0 (10.6)38.9 (8.7)42.8 (10.9)38.5 (10.0)<0.001
    LDL cholesterol (mg/dl; mean [SD])123.7 (36.5)130.4 (36.8)142.6 (38.1)127.2 (35.7)122.7 (33.7)<0.001
    FBS (mg/dl; mean [SD])89 (9.7)90.0 (12.3)96.3 (12.1)88.2 (8.8)92.4 (16.6)<0.001
    creatinine (mg/dl; mean [SD])1.03 (0.15)1.04 (0.15)1.07 (0.16)1.03 (0.15)0.98 (0.15)<0.001
    CrCl (ml/min per 1.73 m2; mean [SD])89.9 (19.4)87.8 (18.6)87.9 (21.3)87.8 (17.7)103.4 (24.6)0.854
        CKD stages 1 and 2 (%)10010010097.6
        CKD stage 3 (%)0002.4
        CKD stages 4 and 5 (%)0000
Medications (%)
    β blocker3.45.313.73.18.1<0.001
    calcium-channel blocker0.81.12.90.61.5<0.001
    diuretic agent1.11.12.40.71.4<0.001
    ACEI0.80.72.50.21.5<0.001
    vasodilator0.50.41.20.10.6<0.001
    aspirin1.42.36.11.34.3<0.001
    antihyperglycemic agent00000.6
    lipid lowering0.81.12.90.61.8<0.001
  • a ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CrCl, creatinine clearance; DBP, diastolic BP; FBS, fasting blood glucose; MS, metabolic syndrome; SBP, systolic BP.

  • b Comparison between the patients who had metabolic syndrome at baseline and the patients who did not have metabolic syndrome at baseline.