Table 4.

Associations of ECG markers with cardiovascular events according to estimated kidney functiona

ParametereGFR < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2
Rate (Events)5-Yr Incidence (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)bRate (Events)5-Yr Incidence (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)b
Incident HF
    PR ≤ 200 ms27.3 (95)0.11 (0.08 to 0.14)Reference18.4 (335)0.07 (0.06 to 0.08)Reference
    PR > 200 ms44.2 (32)0.22 (0.14 to 0.30)0.96 (0.63 to 1.46)20.9 (62)0.08 (0.05 to 0.10)0.89(0.67 to 1.18)
    P value for interactionc0.62
    QRS ≤ 100 ms28.0 (99)0.12 (0.09 to 0.15)Reference15.8 (280)0.06 (0.05 to 0.06)Reference
    100 < QRS ≤ 120 ms36.9 (14)0.22 (0.10 to 0.32)1.10 (0.61 to 1.97)31.7 (75)0.12 (0.08t to 0.16)1.70 (1.30 to 2.23)
    QRS > 120 ms50.1 (14)0.17 (0.04 to 0.28)1.88 (1.06 to 3.33)37.1 (42)0.13 (0.07 to 0.18)2.01 (1.44 to 2.80)
    P value for interaction0.88
    QTi ≤ 98%16.3 (6)0.04 (0.00 to 0.10)Reference19.0 (39)0.07 (0.03 to 0.10)Reference
    98 < QTi ≤ 102%21.7 (26)0.10 (0.05 to 0.15)1.41 (0.57 to 3.46)15.3 (92)0.05 (0.03 to 0.07)0.86 (0.59 to 1.26)
    102 < QTi ≤ 107%30.3 (44)0.14 (0.09 to 0.18)2.68 (1.13 to 6.36)16.1 (133)0.06 (0.04 to 0.07)0.93 (0.65 to 1.34)
    107 < QTi ≤ 112%32.1 (25)0.16 (0.08 to 0.22)2.61 (1.05 to 6.48)23.2 (77)0.08 (0.05 to 0.10)1.27 (0.85 to 1.89)
    QTi > 112%65.0 (26)0.24 (0.12 to 0.34)4.95 (1.99 to 12.34)36.2 (56)0.15 (0.10 to 0.20)1.66 (1.08 to 2.53)
    P value for interaction0.11
Incident CHD
    PR ≤ 200 ms39.7 (134)0.16 (0.13 to 0.20)Reference25.7 (452)0.12 (0.10 to 0.13)Reference
    PR > 200 ms49.0 (35)0.18 (0.10 to 0.25)0.78 (0.53 to 1.16)30.0 (84)0.13 (0.10 to 0.16)1.01 (0.79 to 1.29)
    P value for interaction0.32
    QRS ≤ 100 ms37.6 (130)0.15 (0.12 to 0.19)Reference24.1 (409)0.06 (0.05 to 0.06)Reference
    100 < QRS ≤ 120 ms44.1 (17)0.16 (0.06 to 0.24)0.91 (0.54 to 1.55)38.1 (87)0.12 (0.08 to 0.16)1.35 (1.06 to 1.72)
    QRS > 120 ms89.1 (22)0.29 (0.14 to 0.41)2.66 (1.67 to 4.24)36.5 (40)0.13 (0.07 to 0.18)1.25 (0.89 to 1.74)
    P value for interaction0.26
    QTi ≤ 98%36.1 (13)0.09 (0.00 to 0.17)Reference22.2 (44)0.07 (0.03 to 0.10)Reference
    98 < QTi ≤ 102%37.4 (43)0.16 (0.10 to 0.21)1.16 (0.60 to 2.22)25.9 (148)0.05 (0.03 to 0.07)1.24 (0.89 to 1.75)
    102 < QTi ≤ 107%36.5 (52)0.16 (0.10 to 0.21)1.28 (0.68 to 2.42)25.8 (205)0.06 (0.04 to 0.07)1.24 (0.89 to 1.73)
    107 < QTi ≤ 112%41.3 (31)0.18 (0.10 to 0.25)1.38 (0.70 to 2.74)25.3 (82)0.08 (0.05 to 0.10)1.19 (0.82 to 1.72)
    QTi > 112%74.2 (30)0.24 (0.13 to 0.34)2.30 (1.15 to 4.60)37.8 (57)0.15 (0.10 to 0.20)1.55 (1.03 to 2.32)
    P value for interaction0.13
All-cause death
    PR ≤ 200 ms60.1 (224)0.20 (0.16 to 0.24)Reference35.0 (669)0.12 (0.11 to 0.13)Reference
    PR > 200 ms76.6 (61)0.23 (0.15 to 0.31)0.81 (0.60 to 1.09)34.1 (107)0.10 (0.07 to 0.13)0.87 (0.70 to 1.08)
    P value for interaction0.84
    QRS ≤ 100 ms56.2 (213)0.18 (0.15 to 0.21)Reference32.4 (597)0.11 (0.09 to 0.12)Reference
    100 < QRS ≤ 120 ms92.9 (39)0.26 (0.14 to 0.36)1.71 (1.20 to 2.43)44.3 (114)0.13 (0.09 to 0.17)1.32 (1.07 to 1.63)
    QRS > 120 ms105.7 (33)0.40 (0.25 to 0.52)2.61 (1.79 to 3.81)51.7 (65)0.23 (0.16 to 0.29)1.39 (1.07 to 1.82)
    P value for interaction0.01
    QTi ≤ 98%63.6 (24)0.17 (0.05 to 0.27)Reference35.0 (75)0.14 (0.10 to 0.18)Reference
    98 < QTi ≤ 102%63.0 (80)0.19 (0.13 to 0.25)0.94 (0.58 to 1.51)31.8 (199)0.11 (0.09 to 0.13)1.05 (0.80 to 1.37)
    102 < QTi ≤ 107%62.4 (98)0.23 (0.17 to 0.29)1.25 (0.79 to 1.99)33.0 (284)0.11 (0.09 to 0.13)1.07 (0.82 to 1.39)
    107 < QTi ≤ 112%53.5 (45)0.16 (0.09 to 0.23)1.07 (0.64 to 1.80)38.9 (137)0.13 (0.10 to 0.16)1.27 (0.95 to 1.70)
    QTi > 112%82.2 (38)0.27 (0.16 to 0.37)1.53 (0.89 to 2.62)47.1 (81)0.14 (0.09 to 0.19)1.31 (0.95 to 1.83)
    P value for interaction0.96
  • a CHD, coronary heart disease; HF, heart failure.

  • b Adjustment variables are age; race; gender; smoking and alcohol status; prevalent diabetes; SBP; height; weight; heart rate; use of digoxin, β blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, aspirin, and ACE inhibitors; and serum levels of albumin, hemoglobin, potassium, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol.

  • c P values for interaction test whether association of each continuous ECG marker with incident events differs according to an eGFR <60 versus ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2.