Table 3.

Mean differences in ECG markers associated with unit differences in estimated kidney functiona

ParameterMean Difference in ECG Marker (95% CI)P (Model 2)
UnadjustedModel 1Model 2
PR interval
    eGFR <60b4.5 (1.88 to 7.11)2.7 (0.1 to 5.3)1.6 (−1.1 to 4.2)0.24
    cystatin Cc9.2 (5.74 to 12.73)4.1 (0.5 to 7.8)1.8 (−2.0 to 5.6)0.36
QRS interval
    eGFR <600.7 (−0.77 to 2.18)0.6 (−0.9 to 2.0)0.0 (−1.5 to 1.5)0.98
    cystatin C4.1 (2.13 to 6.08)1.6 (−0.5 to 3.6)0.4 (−1.8 to 2.5)0.74
QTc interval
    eGFR <601.3 (−0.69 to 3.31)0.8 (−1.1 to 2.6)1.4 (−0.5 to 3.3)0.16
    cystatin C3.3 (0.59 to 5.93)1.5 (−1.2 to 4.1)2.6 (−0.2 to 5.3)0.07
QTI
    eGFR <600.5 (0.02 to 0.99)0.3 (−0.2 to 0.8)0.3 (−0.2 to 0.8)0.26
    cystatin C0.9 (0.30 to 1.60)0.5 (−0.2 to 1.2)0.5 (−0.3 to 1.2)0.21
  • a Model 1 was adjusted for age, race, gender, height, weight, heart rate, SBP, diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance, HDL and total cholesterol, smoking, and alcohol use. Model 2 adds cardiovascular medications (calcium channel blockers, β blockers, digoxin, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, aspirin) and serum potassium, albumin, and hemoglobin levels. Mean difference values were measured in milliseconds. CI, confidence interval; ECG, electrocardiogram.

  • b eGFR analyzed as < versus ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2.

  • c Cystatin C levels analyzed continuously in mg/L.