Appendix 1.

YSQ domains, description, and included subscales

DomainDescriptionSubscales
Disconnection and rejectionExpectation that one's needs for security, safety, stability, nurturance, empathy, sharing of feelings, acceptance, and respect will not be met in a predictable manner.Abandonment, mistrust/abuse, emotional deprivation, social isolation, defectiveness/shame
Impaired autonomyExpectations about oneself and the environment that interfere with one's perceived ability to separate, survive, function independently, or perform successfully.Functional dependence/incompetence, vulnerability to harm, enmeshment, failure to achieve
Other-directednessAn excessive focus on the desires, feelings, and responses of others, at the expense of one's own needs, to gain love and approval, maintain one's sense of connection, or avoid retaliation.Subjugation, self-sacrifice
Over vigilance and inhibitionExcessive emphasis on suppressing one's spontaneous feelings, impulses, and choices or on meeting rigid, internalized rules and expectations about performance and ethical behavior, often at the expense of happiness, self-expression, relaxation, close relationships, or health.Emotional inhibition, unrelenting standards
Impaired limitsDeficiency in internal limits, responsibility to others, or long-term goal orientation. Leads to difficulty respecting the rights of others, cooperating with others, making commitments, or setting and meeting realistic personal goals.Entitlement, insufficient self-control